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Background: Majority of the neonates have a transient deficiency of vitamin K dependant coagulation factors like II, VII, IX and X by 48-72 hours of life. This transient deficiency is resolved by the age of 7-10 days. This transient Vit K dependant coagulation factor deficiency may cause spontaneous bleeding in neonates such bleeding if occurs in between 2nd to 7th day of life is called classical HDN. The other 2 forms of HDN are early onset HDN (Manifesting within 24 hours) and late onset HDN (Occurring between 1-6 months of life). We conducted a prospective study of neonates admitted to our neonatology unit with hemorrhagic disease of newborn to know risk factors and outcome in neonates with HDN.
Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical features and outcome of neonates with hemorrhagic disease of newborn.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study comprising of 30 neonates admitted in NICU with the diagnosis of hemorrhagic disease of newborn. HDN associated risk factors, age at presentation, Demographic profile, clinical features, complications and outcomes were studied. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. P-Value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
Results: In this study out of 30 neonates diagnosed with hemorrhagic disease of newborn there were 18 (60%) males and 12 (40 %) females with a M:F ratio of 1:0.66. The most common type of HDN was found to be classical type (53.33 %) followed by early onset (12 %) and late HDN (34.77 %). Majority of the infants (83.33%) with HDN were exclusively breastfed and most common site of bleeding were intracranial (23.33 %) and GI bleeding (23.33%). Outcome of neonates showed that 43.33 % babies recovered without any sequele, 13.33 % infants expired and remaining 43.34 % infants had some sequele at the time of discharge.
Conclusion: Hemorrhagic disease of newborn is a common cause of bleeding in a well looking baby. Any well looking baby with bleeding manifestations should be considered to be having HDN (early onset, classical or late onset) unless proved otherwise. Appropriate treatment has an excellent outcome in these babies.