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Title : Analysis of Social Studies Material in Primary School Curriculum

Article Date Accepted: !dateAccepted; | Article Date Published : 6 April 2018 | Page No.: 4573-4576

Abstract

This study aims to assess the Social Studies material contained in the book of integrated thematic curriculum in 2013 the fourth grade of primary school. Selection of the fourth grade of primary school due to the initial implementation of integrated thematic learning in curriculum 2013 in a high-class curriculum. This study used a qualitative approach with a particular method of discourse analysis and content analysis of the data obtained through text analysis and documentation. Which is the object of this research is the book of integrated thematic curriculum fourth grade of primary school in curriculum 2013. Social Studies material is organized from the teaching materials and simple close around the child to a more extensive and complex. Depth presentation of the material in the textbook Social Studies  the fourth grade of primary school thematic curriculum is associated with students' knowledge. The level of difficulty of the material adapted to the development of learners who are at the stage of "concrete-operational", giving the students in understanding the material.

Introduction:

Books are the bearers of civilization, without any history books silent, silent literature, science crippled, thought jammed ( Tuchman, 1989 ). Not only that but Freire ( 2007 ) also states that the book is a medium of communication between teachers and students. Both teachers and students inside or outside the learning will not be separated from the book. Textbooks to schools have an important role in learning. The textbook is a bridge of communication to "transfer of knowledge and transfer of value" from master to student.

Regulation of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia (the game) Number 11 of 2005 specific set of functions, election, life, property, procurement, and supervision of textbooks. Textbooks are reference books required for use in schools that includes learning materials to increase faith and piety, character and personality, the ability to master science and technology, sensitivity and ability aesthetic, physical potential and health compiled by national education standards. Textbooks to serve as a reference required by teachers and learners in the learning process.

Textbooks have an important role for educators and students than as a learning and reference materials as a means to assist student learning; textbooks also help students to understand the material they will learn to read and understand it. Good textbooks must have eligibility to serve as a source of learning, which is interesting and able to stimulate students' interest to learn. For these expectations come true, the book should be interesting, both regarding form and content, and impact on the development of the ability to think, act, and behave. Textbooks are true is a book that can help students solve problems of straightforward and complex, does not cause a false perception and truth can be accounted for by the rules of science. Therefore, analyzing textbooks is one good

way to do by teachers to know the extent to which the quality of textbooks used in the learning system Curriculum in 2013 two books are used as a reference in the textbook learning, namely textbooks and teacher guide books. Textbooks are a primary source of learning for achieving the core competencies and core competencies ( Goldner, 2013 ). Meanwhile, teachers' guidebook is a guide that includes instructional strategies, methods of teaching, learning and assessment techniques for each subject and theme of learning.

Researchers conducted preliminary interviews with teachers fourth grade at one of the schools that already use the curriculum 2013. It turned out books thematically integrated in curriculum 2013 still has shortcomings, especially regarding exposure of the material that 's hard to be understood by teachers and students, where there is some material that tends to be a repetition of learning previously. These conditions affect the delivery of educational material to students so that the process of interaction of education in Social Studies encountered resistance, which in turn results in Social Studies students are not as expected.

Social Studies is a vehicle for the education of a nation. In Article 37 Education Law stated that Social Studies are a necessary charge that must be present in the primary and secondary curriculum. The Social Studies is the simplification or adaptation of the discipline of social sciences and humanities, as well as basic human activities are organized and presented in a scientific and pedagogical/psychological for educational purposes ( Rosita Dwi, 2016 ).

Social Studies designed to develop knowledge, understanding, and analysis capabilities of the social conditions in entering a dynamic social life. Social Studies arranged in a systematic, comprehensive, and integrated into the learning process towards maturity and success in life in society. With this approach, the expected learners will gain a broader understanding and depth in science-related fields. Social Studies material presented in the 1st half within each theme is presented superficially only. Discussion of such materials impress only as a complement to other subjects course materials, content material Social Studies by basic competencies and indicators are listed to be developed in the study did not show up.

Conditions such as mentioned above can not be left continuously in the learning process, so we need a solution in the form of innovative measures of teachers to master the teaching materials of the Social Studies textbooks.

Methodology

In this study, the approach used is through a qualitative approach with the method of discourse analysis, especially analysis of the content. Which is the goal of this qualitative study was to give an idea in depth, detailed and thorough documentation on the results of the Integrated Thematic Curriculum 2013 book the fourth grade of primary school. This study is also a study using discourse analysis methods, especially methods of content analysis. The basis of discourse analysis is interpretation because the analysis of discourse is part of the interpretative method that relies on the interpretation and the interpretation of the researcher. Content analysis method (content analysis) or content analysis was used to analyze the substance of the discourse. Study content analysis can deliver a speech researchers to make inferences that can be replicated (replicable) and valid data of context ( Krippendorff, 1989 ). To obtain a deep understanding and keen on aspects of the presentation in the textbook, this study using the criteria drawn up by national standards of education for Social Studies textbooks and the analysis stage refers to the book analyzes guidance of teachers and students' books contained in the module training curriculum materials in 2013.

The object of this research is the Integrated Thematic Books Curriculum 2 0 1 3 book the fourth grade of primary school Semester 1 and 2 for a book teachers and students as much as nine themes. The book is a reference book that became compulsory schools that have used the curriculum in 201 3 . Data collection through text analysis and literature. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative method of analysis, content with the steps (1) Procurement of data (determination unit; Sampling; recording); (2) Reduction of data (data less relevant reduced); (3) Inference (the process of making conclusions); ( 4 ) Analysis (looking for content and symbolic meaning).

Result and Discussion

The breadth of the material is the material presented includes a scope in the content standards, meet the demands of existing minimum competency standards and basic competency. The scope of material that reflects competency standards and basic competencies: Material fourth grade of at least presents the history and the cultural and ethnic diversity, a map of the environment, natural resources, economic activities, technological developments and problems in life in the surrounding environment learners. The breadth of coverage material describes how much material is put into the learning material.

The depth of the material that is the level of difficulty and abstractness by the concept of development of learners is more emphasis on the "concrete-operational." The material presented in accordance with SK and basic competencies so as to avoid overlapping with the materials between classes, then the description of the documentation is minimal includes: Material fourth grader minimal learners can read a map of the neighborhood, describing the diversity of social and cultural diversity, respect for the variety of tribes and cultures and appreciation of heritage, build morale and patriotism exemplary heroic figures of the local environment, know the economic activity, and the role of cooperatives, recognize the development of production technology, communication, transportation and social problems that occur in the environment of the learners. The depth of material regarding how detailed the concepts contained in it that must be learned and mastered by learners.

Social Studies depth discussion of the matter, the researchers conducted a single analysis of data obtained documentation. From the analysis of the results brought researchers at several conclusions as follows.

Presentation of the material in the textbook Social Studies curriculum 2013 the fourth grade of primary school thematic curriculum associated with the student's knowledge. The level of difficulty of the material adapted to the development of learners who are at the stage of "concrete-operational," so as to provide convenience to the students to understand the material.

Selection of illustrations to clarify and deepen the Social Studies study material presented in the book are by the needs of each material on each theme. In line with this abstractness, material exposure could be avoided each topic.

The use of language in the exposure of the material easy to understand students. So that in-depth study that raises overlap between classes do not take place in any theme.

Overall, the depth study of the material by the standards of the content of the Competes Core and Basic Competence book the fourth grade of primary school, and in no small part to the discussion of several themes, particularly in the 1st half that covers topics Social Studies superficially without descriptions are more detailed and clear.

Social Studies discussion of the perceived depth of the material by the criteria of book the fourth grade of primary school as an example Social Studies contained in the theme 5 ( Heroes ) subtheme 1 (Struggle of the Heroes ). The scope of the material by the teaching materials in the fourth grade of primary school. The level of difficulty and abstractness by the development of learners, presenting images as well as the use of a language easily understood by students. Examples of the material contained in the Social Studies superficial theme 2 ( Always Frugality Energy ) subtema 2 ( Utilization of Energy ) learning to 6. Translation of indicators of basic competence is less clear, and the exposure of the material was not visible. Indicators describing "describes the experience of working together with friends" and on learning activities do not appear direction indicator is only at the final stage there is the reflection of students.

From the results above would largely depth discussion Social Studies material contained in the thematic curriculum textbooks fourth grade in 2013 have appropriate teaching materials in the fourth grade of primary school. Where the depth of equipment according to national standards of education is the level of difficulty and abstractness by the concept of development of learners is more emphasis on the "concrete-operational." The material presented in accordance with core competencies and basic competencies so as to avoid overlapping with the materials between the classes, the description of equipment minimal learners can read a map of the neighborhood, describing the diversity of social and cultural diversity, respect for the variety of ethnicities and cultures and an appreciation of heritage, build excitement heroism exemplary character and patriotism - local environmental leaders, recognize the economic activity and the role of cooperatives, acknowledge the development of production technology, communication, and transportation as well as social problems that occur in the environment of the learners. Where there are few records, in particular on the themes in the first half, Social Studies material presented in each topic are presented superficially only. Discussion of such materials impress only as a complement to other subjects course materials, content material Social Studies by basic competencies and indicators are listed to be developed in the learning does not appear.

Breadth Material Social Studies

In the discussion of the extent of the material Social Studies, researchers conducted a single analysis of data obtained documentation. From the analysis of the results brought researchers at several conclusions as follows.

Exposure Social Studies material presents a global social knowledge by giving concrete examples, perceived capable broaden the students and teachers about the study of more complex material SOCIAL STUDIES.

Material Social Studies provide guidance and assist students in finding attitudes and values that can be used in addressing social problems in the life in the surrounding environment learners.

The breadth of the materials on textbooks thematic 2013 fourth grade curriculum as a whole has met the minimum demands in core competencies and competency grounds, and there is a small portion that describes the material, not by the scope of the core competencies and competency Elementary.

Identification of the material next to perceived material coverage is within the framework of the study material for the Social Studies natural features and artificial materials. At 8 scene where I lived, my neighborhood Subtheme 1 to 1 learning. Discussion of the material on these subthemes are by the criteria described national standards of education breadth. Social Studies study material presented in this subtheme in the sixth grade of an elementary school on the potential of natural resources. The discussion begins by describing one of the natural conditions in one of the islands of Indonesia, the potential contained within the island and its benefits for the environment.

Other identification results are elaborated on the Social Studies material that is not widely found in textbooks thematic curriculum in 2013 on Scene 1 Beautiful Togetherness, subtema 1 Nation Cultural Diversity learning to 3. Since the scope of criteria based on the breadth of material Social Studies, the Social Studies material exposure at this subtheme still shallows where the learning activities of students simply apply the procedure of traditional games without more extended follow-up such as the identification of the value in the traditional game. Identify the value it intends to the formation of students' attitudes to be applied in their daily lives.

From the results above would Social Studies overall breadth of the material contained in the thematic curriculum textbooks fourth grade in 2013 have appropriate teaching materials in the fourth grade of primary school, although there are several sub-themes are not suitable. Where the breadth of the material in question is the material presented includes a scope in the content standards, meet the minimum demands of existing core competencies and basic competency. According to national standards of education scope in question is reflecting core competencies and basic competencies materials fourth grade of at least presents the history and diversity of cultures and races, maps of the environment, the potential of natural resources, economic activities, technological developments and problems in life in the surrounding environment learners.

Where the Core Competence is a translation or operationalization graduate competence standards in the form of quality that must have for those who have completed education in the educational unit specific or level of education, an overview of the key competencies that are grouped into aspects of attitudes, knowledge, and skills (affective, cognitive and psychomotor ) that must be learned learners to a school level, classes and subjects.

Core competencies should describe the quality of the balance between the achievement of hard skills and soft skills. Core Competence serves as an element of organizing (organizing element) basic competence. As an organizer elements, Core Competence is a binder for the organization of vertical and horizontal organization of basic competency. The vertical organization is a link between the Basic Competency Basic Competency content of the class or education level to grade/level on it so that it meets the principle of learning that there is a continuous accumulation of content learned. The horizontal organization is the link between the Basic Competence content of the subjects with the substance of the basic competencies of different topics in the weekly meetings and the same class so that a process of mutually reinforcing. Core Competency was designed for four groups of interrelated, i.e., relating to religious attitudes (core competency 1), social attitudes (competency 2), knowledge (core competency 3), and application of knowledge (competency 4). The fourth group was the reference of basic competencies and should be developed in any event integrative learning. Competence about social and religious attitudes developed indirectly (indirect teaching) is when students learn about knowledge (competence group 3) and the application of knowledge (core competencies group 4). Basic competence is the competence of each subject for each class derived from Core Competence.

Basic competence is content or competence consists of attitudes, knowledge, and skills are rooted in core competencies that must be mastered, learners. The competencies developed by taking into account the characteristics of learners, new ability, as well as the characteristics of a subject.

Conclusion

Social Studies instructional material taught in high-grade primary consists of two basic study material that are a social science and history. Fit the data obtained from the study, the overall regularity Social Studies material in the fourth-grade curriculum thematic book 2013 is not appropriate, aligned and structured. Keruntutan Social Studies material in this research is the material Social Studies harmonized, consistent and structured curriculum and development of learners. Social Studies study materials organized material of the lesson material and simple close around the child to a broader and more complex.

The depth of the material contained in the Social Studies thematic curriculum textbooks fourth grade in 2013 most of the discussion has been appropriate teaching materials in the fourth grade of primary school. Where the depth of the material in question the level of difficulty and abstractness by the concept of development of learners is more emphasis on the "concrete-operational." Social Studies, as well as the breadth of the material contained in the thematic curriculum textbooks fourth grade in 2013 as a whole, have appropriate teaching materials in the fourth grade of primary school. Where the breadth of the material in question is the material presented includes existing space in the content standards, meet the minimum demands of existing core competencies and Basic Competence.

References

  1. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Northeast Conference for Teachers of Psychology, Housatonic Community College, Bridgeport, Connecticut, October 18, 2013 .. CrossRef Google Scholar
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  5. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Shelley Mack, Krippendorff Klaus. Journal of the American Statistical Association.1984-mar. CrossRef Google Scholar

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Article Details

Issue: Vol 5 No 4 (2018)
Page No.: 4573-4576
Section: Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsshi/v5i4.05


 How to Cite
., A., Mulyahati, B., & Fransyaigu, R. (2018). Analysis of Social Studies Material in Primary School Curriculum. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 5(4), 4573-4576. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsshi/v5i4.05

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