Indonesian society is a pluralistic society, so it needs understanding of multicultural values in every interaction through education. Cultural diversity must be understood and accepted as a uniqueness that is able to bring Indonesian society in the heterogeneous life of society. Schools play a key role in how an educational institution is able to transmit multicultural values. This study raises the problem (1) the application of multicultural context in the study of writing poetry in high school; and (2) student learning outcomes on the application of multicultural contexts on learning to write poetry in high school. This research design using qualitative descriptive approach through step 1: Preliminary observation, step 2: developing learning tools, compiling materials, and evaluation guides, step 3: applying the multicultural context to the learning of writing poetry to the class which is the activity enforcement in a classroom learning, 4) step 4: Formative evaluation and description of research results. The application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry is done through preliminary activities, core, follow-up, and reflection. Student attitudes after applied multicultural contexts begin to enthusiastically pay attention to teachers and mostly seem to seriously engage in discussion activities with group members. The skills of writing poetry on the aspect of the accuracy of word selection or diction, topics, and the message, have met the good category. In the skill students are able to choose the right word or diction, determine the theme, and understand the cultural differences that exist around them to be positively responded. Students are also quite able to understand the mandate implied in the poem to apply to everyday life.
Multiculturalism is an alternative perspective to overcome ethnic, religious, and various other primordial identities and social conflicts. Multicultural societies are tolerant. They have a spirit of peaceful-co-existence, in their peaceful coexistence. Every social and cultural entity still carries its true identity and does not disappear and then disappears, but it is also not shown as pride beyond appreciation of other entities. In this multiculturalism perspective both individual and group of ethnic and cultural entities live in societal cohesion without losing their respective identities. Society united in the social sphere, but inter-ethnicity still there is a difference. This multicultural concept can develop in a democratic society like Indonesia, because it emphasizes differences in equality [Parsudi in Alfian 2004].
Multicultural education is expected to be the best solution in handling cultural diversity by fostering a spirit of appreciation for other cultures. Multicultural education should be seen as a practical dimension of multiculturalism and an alternative learning process that is more suited to local needs and culture. Riyanto [2006: 18] states that multicultural education is a series of concepts, behavioral guidelines, and arenas formally formulated through curriculum, regulation, teaching-learning methods, teacher abilities, intercultural relationships and society in terms of multiculturalism. The broader multicultural education includes all students without distinction of groups such as gender, ethnicity, race, culture, social strata and
religion. Multicultural education can be used both at the descriptive and normative levels that describe educational issues related to multicultural societies. In multicultural education not only revise the learning materials but also do reforms in the learning system itself.
In the view of multicultural education, this social dimension can be developed by ( 1 ) prioritizing families and mothers who are the first place in life, ( 2 ) paying attention to the development of children and youth, as the basic capital of society and future strength, ( 3 ) achieving and economical in life, ( 4 ) fostering human consciousness of its ability to participate in the progress of society, defending and maintaining its tranquility, and ( 5 ) forming a broad-minded human being and feeling that he is a member of the global world community [Dawam 2006: 57].
The multicultural education that has always seemed to be closed [Salim 2004: 111] needs to be made open in order to bring children to a form of heightened awareness to make the most relevant choices as the future demands of life with language as a tool of communication. Multicultural education in its current application is not as an independent subject but integrated into other subjects. Multicultural education is empirically and theoretically appropriate to be integrated in Indonesian language learning. The reason, Indonesian language is a communication tool that can unify the diversity in the community hence the mastery of Indonesian language is needed and multicultural learning appropriate when applied in learning Indonesian.
In line with Salim's view [2003: 121] which states that education for high school students to be democratic and sensitive-multiculturalism is more effective when integrated into Indonesian language learning. In learning Indonesian language there is the competence of the language that is writing. Writing is also a high level mental activity. That is, writing is an activity that requires thoughts and feelings with high intensity.
In the level of language skills, writing also occupies the highest level after listening, speaking and reading [Suyatno 2004: 7]. One of the basic competencies of writing aspect is writing poetry. This competency is an important competency given to the students. Through the skills of writing poetry, students will be able to convey information to others clearly. Information written through poetry would be a useful thing for others as readers and useful for writers as a place to be creative. Given this basic competence is very important, then these skills need to be mastered by high school students as one of the provisions in developing writing skills.
Learning to write poetry on Indonesian language and literature in a multicultural context is essentially learning to communicate while learning literature is learning to value human beings and their human values [Situmorang 1980: 115]. The learning of Indonesian language and literature aims to improve students' ability to communicate in Indonesian both orally and in writing and to raise awards for human creativity in Indonesia.
Based on the observation and the need of learning which is now autonomous in education, the learning model of multicultural context is seen as a need that is oriented towards peace and unity and as a global anticipation to address the plurality of family, school, and community environment. In this research, the researcher analyze the application of multicultural context in Indonesian language learning, especially the material of writing poetry to the students of grade X SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran.
1. The Essence of Writing poetry
Poetry is one form of literary work. In terms of definition, poetry can not be precisely defined. This depends on each individual's view of poetry, but to understand it needs to know the typical poetic characteristic. Etymologically, the word poetry in Greek comes from “poesis” which means to mean creation. In dictionary Literary Terms [Waluyo 1995: 61] poetry is defined as a variety of literature whose language is bound by rhythms, mantras, rhymes and arrangements of lines, and lines. In English, the equivalent of this word poetry is a close poetry with -poet and -poem. Regarding the word poet, Coulter [in Hardjono 1991: 7] explains that the word poet comes from Greek which means to create or create. In Greek itself, the word poet means one who creates through his imagination, one who is almost godlike or very fond of the gods. He is a shrewd person, a saint, a philosopher, a statesman, a teacher, a person who can guess the hidden truth.
According to Waluyo [1995: 45] poetry is a literary work with a compacted language, shortened, and given the rhythm with a unified sound and the selection of words that are imaginative or imaginative. Poetry is a manifestation of life, the symbols of life, or mimesis of life. Therefore, poetry can be called as an expression of the soul, which expresses social phenomena through figurative words. As a social symbol, of course, poetry is a disseminator of social values known by the author as a raw material of his imagination.
To better understand the essence of poetry, here are some of the definitions quoted from Pradopo [ 2 00 7 : 5 ] namely ( 1 ) poetry is the most beautiful tape of our lives ( Shelley ); ( 2 ) poetry is more a statement of mixed feelings ( Auden ); ( 3 ) the poem is concrete and artistic human thought in emotional and rhythmic language ( Dunton ); and ( 4 ) poetry is the interpretive experience of experience in rhythmic language ( Altembernd ). In relation to poetry, Waluyo [ 1 99 5 : 6 8 ] describes the characteristics of poetry, namely ( 1 ) his writings are stanzas, but others are one stanza; ( 2 ) each stanza consists of lines; ( 3 ) has a theme; ( 4 ) has a rhyme; ( 5 ) has a rhythm; ( 6 ) has a metrum; ( 7 ) has a structure; and ( 8 ) there is one or more deviations from the nine language deviations.
In addition to the definition of the expert, there are also other experts who define poetry as quoted Hardjono [ 1 99 1 : 4-5], namely (1) poetry is the word as a rhythmic beauty creations, "Edgar Allan Poe"; and ( 2 ) poetry is a tone full of authenticity and harmony "Isaac Newton".
Based on the above definitions, it can be concluded that poetry is the result of the revelation of human inner experience. The result of the mind which is manifested through the aesthetic language by concentrating the physical structure and its inner structure and compressed its words in text form.
2. Multicultural Education
The process of education is a process of culture, then multicultural society can only be created through the process of education. In line with that, Tilaar [2004: 192] explained that multicultural education in Indonesia aims to foster Indonesian individuals who have their respective tribal culture, nourish and develop it, as well as build the Indonesian nation with Indonesian culture as mandated in the 1945 Constitution in Indonesia.
Similarly, in Korea in quotes Park [2016: 2492-2496] it was revealed that multicultural applied in education was motivated by the consideration that "multicultural education is a reform movement focusing on school curriculum reform and the education system so as to provide students with various national classes, races and groups with equal educational opportunities ". From these opinions, it is clear that multicultural is important in education.
According to Kim [2017: 2438-2447] cultural diversity is defined as a source that allows the development of society and plural society. In Vietnam, cultural diversity is an element associated with ethnic diversity. Multicultural education in Indonesia is associated with various activities such as curriculum reform, teaching social justice, multicultural competence, and equality pedagogy. The role of teachers in multicultural contextual learning is very important. According to Choi [2017: 2492-2496] that in some public schools, general subject teachers are tasked with introducing multicultural and are also responsible for the management of multicultural students. As a novelty, the teacher in multicultural learning acts as a facilitator. In relation to that role, teachers need knowledge, experience, and learning models and practical teaching material guides.
1. Research Design
The research design in this research uses qualitative descriptive approach. The scope of this research is the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry for high school students of Class X. Steps or steps in this research as follows.
a. Step 1: Preliminary observations, including: (a) finding relevant literature sources and research results; (b) observing the school environment and interviewing the teacher how the teaching has been carried out.
b. Step 2: Develop learning tools, materials, and evaluation guides.
c. Step 3: Implementing the multicultural context in learning to write poetry in a limited class which is an enforcement activity on a classroom lesson.
d. Step 4: Formative evaluation and description of research results. Evaluation on the application of limited classes uses qualitative methods through interviews, and observations in limited classroom action, and quantitative methods such as performance or ranking of learning outcomes reports. Description of the results of the research activities describe the use of multicultural context on learning to write poetry.
2. Research Subject
Data on the application of multicultural context on learning to write poetry students of SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran obtained from research subjects ie students and teachers.
Students who become subjects in order to obtain data about the application of multicultural context on learning to write poetry students of SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran is a student of Class X.1 semester 2 SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran. The sample selection is based on class X 1 because the class has more ethnic diversity than the other Class X. The student has a situation and condition as a multicultural society such as there are different Javanese and Chinese ethnic, religious, and social status which are able to represent the situation of plural society in school environment.
Data about the need of learning model of writing poetry in a multicultural context is obtained from the second subject of the teacher. The teacher who is the subject of this research is the teacher of Indonesian Class X subjects.
3. Research Instruments
In this research required 2 different data that is first data obtained from result of questionnaire in the form of questionnaire, interview, and observation, textbook, curriculum, and school environment. The second data obtained the assessment instrument of writing poetry through the test. The test given is an oral test that is the task of writing poetry in a multicultural context. Form of research instrument in the form of oral test is used to reveal data about students' ability in writing poetry in a multicultural context. The ultimate value of the ability to tell the most memorable experiences in a multicultural context is based on the number of scores from each aspect.
4. Technical Data Analysis
The data have been collected and then analyzed that is data from the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry as implementation of learning through test. The test is a result of the students' and non test assessment in the form of observation data, interviews and questionnaires given to students and teachers.
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This study aims to find the formulation of the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry for high school students and learning outcomes in the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry for high school students. The data that has been collected is then analyzed. As for the analysis, it is found that the result of enforcement is the implementation of multicultural context in learning to write poetry for high school students of Class X. Value taking using assessment of test result and non-compliance. In addition, in the form of observation data, interviews and questionnaires given to students and teachers.
The results of enforcement in the classroom is useful to see attitudes and responses of students on the implementation of the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry. The results of enforcement are described qualitatively and quantitatively.
1. Application of Multicultural Context in Poetry Writing Learning in SMA
In the analysis of the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry used learning steps and supported by questionnaires, interviews, and observation. Questionnaires and interviews on students aim to reveal statements that support the academic needs of students. The questionnaire and interview to the teacher aims to reveal the implementation of learning that has been carried out. Observations were made of textbooks used in schools and curricula used by schools. Analysis of the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry has a path through which teachers and students during the learning process as follows.
a. Activity Introduction in Learning
In this stage, there is apperception. The apperception is the initial activity before the learning begins in the form of a psychological preparation process to enter the core activities of learning. This process lasts 10 minutes at the beginning of the lesson. Teachers in this process engage in dialogue with students in relation to the learning topics to be carried out, a global learning overview, learning objectives, and benefits to be gained by students. Apperception activities have several objectives: preparing students psychologically and physically to carry out learning and linking students' experiences with global multicultural values.
b. Core Activity in Learning
In this stage the students do the core learning activities by obtaining information and aesthetic value of teaching materials provided by the teacher and related to the multicultural context. Things to consider in exploring information is the ability of students to express the contents of poetry in a multicultural context. The core learning activities consist of several steps: (a) the teacher gives an example of a multicultural context poetry; (b) students understand the content and values contained in the poem; (c) the teacher holds questions and answers with students to explore students' ideas and student experiences based on a multicultural information and aesthetic value; (d) students write poetry in a multicultural context; and (e) the students explore the aesthetic information and values contained in the subject matter of the multicultural context.
The core activities of learning are followed up with the aim of sharpening the students' ability to find information about the culture of the poetry that has been produced by observing the student's surroundings. In supporting the students' understanding of the culture of the poetry of the multicultural context, several activities are needed: ( 1 ) class division into five groups; ( 2 ) giving students the opportunity to discuss poetry in a multicultural context; ( 3 ) to ask questions about poetry related to multicultural understanding the reality of the child's life, and ( 4 ) drawing conclusions with students and internalizing the multicultural values that can be derived from the reality of the child's life that the student has exposed.
c. Closing Learning
Reflection has evaluative aspects done to determine the success of learning activities that have been done. This activity is also done to know the development of students' responses to multicultural learning and also to explore the opinions and responses of students about the learning that has been done.
2) Follow Up
Poems that have been produced by the students are performed in the form of a magazine diding at school. In the long run the poems that have been produced by students are recorded in the form of school poetry anthology and then stored in library as a reading material. Can also be used as a teaching material for poetry analysis.
2. Student Learning Results on the Application of Multicultural Context in Poetry Writing Learning
The subjects of this research are students of class X 1, X 2, X 3, and X 4 at SMAN 1 Ungaran which applied for 2 meetings each. Each class consists of 32 students.
a. Poetry Writing Skills Aspects of Word and Vocabulary in the Application of a Multicultural Context
The application of multicultural context to the study of poetry writing on aspects of the choice of words and vocabulary of students related to the habits, culture, customs and celebration of religious holidays and religious holidays. The assessment of the choice of words and vocabulary is focused on word choice or diction and vocabulary in writing poetry in a multicultural context. Aspects of word selection or diction and vocabulary aims to determine the ability of students in choosing the appropriate and appropriate words to describe what is in his mind. The choice of words or diction and proper vocabulary will bring the poem to life. The results of the assessment of tests in writing poetry in the context of multicultural aspects of choice of words and vocabulary can be seen in the following table.
Table 1 Average Aspect of Poetic Writing Skill
|Class||Aspects of Accuracy of Word Selection||Aspect of Topic accuracy||Aspects of Accuracy of the Mandate||Average Class|
Average results of the ability test from the aspect of accuracy of the treated topics obtained results 84 Students which received treatment on the aspect of the precision of the message is 84 The data in the table above shows very good category with an average score of 833
The choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and the message in class X 1 is correct. The words used are able to describe the story of the students during the celebration of the Chinese New Year celebrated by the Thionghoa. The accuracy of word choice and the vocabulary used by the students is helpful to the understanding of other students to understand the story presented. In addition, students are more aware of the culture or customs that are commonly done by other students who are different ethnic, religious, and cultural.
The result of the ability of writing poetry of class X 2 students on the aspect of the accuracy of word selection obtained the average test result 83, while the aspect of the accuracy of the topics obtained 83 results. Students who received treatment on the aspect of the precision of the mandate is 84.
Based on the above table it can be concluded that the students of class X 2 have been able to master the selection of words or diction, topics, and the poem entries well. This is evidenced by the average grade of students who reached 82, 6. The choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and the mandate of the students of class X 2 contained in the students' poetry is clearly stated. The clarity of choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and messages can be known from other students' understanding of the contents of the poem.
In terms of understanding the choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and poetry mandate in class X 3 obtained the average result of class 83, 6. The result of poetry writing ability on the choice of words or vocabulary obtained a score of 82, while the aspect of the accuracy of the topic obtained 84 results. Judging from the accuracy of the obtained results 85. Based on the above table it can be concluded that the students' skills aspects of choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and poetry entries are included in either category.
Accuracy The choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and the message is understood by all students of class X 3. Many students poetry has written the full choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and a complete message.
Class X 4 obtained the average of the students' writing poetry writing skills based on the aspect of the accuracy of word selection that is 80. The average result of the ability test from the aspect of the accuracy of the treated topics obtained the result 82. Students who received treatment on the aspect of the precision of the message is 84. Data in the table above shows a very good category with an average score of 82.
The choice of words or vocabulary, topics, and the message in class X 4 already meets the standard of good value. Cultural values contained in poetry can be understood by other students who can then foster a feeling of tolerance, tolerance and respect and respect for other people's cultures.
The results of enforcement focused on students' skills on poetry writing skills in a multicultural context and student attitudes from the results of non-test data analysis. From the results of learning obtained the first result, the application of multicultural context in learning to write poetry is done through preliminary activities, core, follow-up, and reflection. Implementation as an application of multicultural context to learning to write poetry because this learning is student-centered and enhances learning activeness and motivation. In this learning the role of the teacher as a facilitator of learning. The second result is the ability to write poetry on the aspects of the accuracy of word selection or diction, topics, and the mandate, already meet the good category. In the skill students are able to choose the right word or diction, determine the theme, and understand the cultural differences that exist around the students to be positively responded. Students are also quite capable of understanding the implicit mandate in the story to apply in everyday life. Teachers more emphasized the multicultural context in learning and lead students on intelligence mindset multicultural society.
Based on the above description can be said the result of application of multicultural application on learning to write poetry shows that multicultural can support the achievement of student academic competence. Indonesian language learning for students becomes more meaningful with communicative learning and understanding of cultural moral values for social life.