Abstract

Since the time immemorial, the plants have provided the basis for medicines. Many a times, it is seen that a plant growing nearby, turns out to be a source of a great medicine Adhatoda vasica Nees. – a very common plant growing in the surroundings contains an important quinazoline alkaloid Vasicine from which Bromhexine is derived. According to Ayurveda, every plant on the earth is medicinal. This reminds the Sanskrit quote “namūlam anauṣadham”. But, the way it narrates the pharmacological action is pretty different from other contemporary sciences. Sometimes, the indication of a plant in Ayurveda matches with the indication of that plant`s metabolite or derivatives of metabolite by modern medicine. But, many a times, its indication is beyond the thought of the active principle. Exploring a medicinal plant with its diverse uses can provide a basis for the better understanding of that plant. This is possible when literary information on a medicinal plant along with its different formulations is compiled and studied. The best source for such activity is a compendium known as Bhava prakasha samhita- a link between medicinal plant, formulations and indications. Present review is an earnest attempt to report the diversified aspect of vasa .The result of this study is intended to take a new step in preparing the formulations containing vasa.

INTRODUCTION

Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every kalpana of vasa is found described in Ayurvedika text [ 1 ] . Vasa , botanically identified as Adhatoda vasica Nees, belonging to Acanthaceae family, is an important Ayurvedic medicinal herb [ 2 ] .The leaves of Adusa have been in use in Indian system of medicine for at least more than 2 000 years. In fact, the antecedence of Vasa goes back to vedic period. Koushika and Panini works delineate vasa and it is described by the other commentators as vrishaka and atarusha (Kou.Su.8/ 1 6 & P.Gr 8/ 2 /9) [ 3 ] . Vasa is a well known herb for respiratory disorders and febrile illness [ 4 ] . Almost all the ayurvedi c seers have recognized its role in resparitory disorders. Sodhala and Yogaratna kara have emphatically claimed that it is a definite treatment for rakta pitta, kshaya and kasa [ 5 ]. Vasa is a drug that draws attention because of its use in different kalpanas and almost every kalpana of this drug is available in a classic recapitulation of ancient literature that draws attention with regard to the utility of vasa in a different formulation [ 6 ] .

Even research on this plant in the contemporary sciences reported various activities. All the parts of the plant are used in herbal medicine and particularly the leaves are endorsed with insecticidal and parasiticidal properties. The root is valuable in strangury, leucorrhoea, bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore eyes, fever and gonorrhea. It is a valuable anti septic, anti periodic and anthelmentic [ 7 ]. The frequent use of Adhatoda vasica has resulted in its inclusion in the W.H.O

manual- The use of Traditional medicine in primary health care[ 8 ] In spite of these facts, utility of vasa in actual clinical practice is confined primarily to the respiratory diseases only. The multiple therapeutic benefits of vasa is gradually disappearing and making vasa as a medicine for cough.

At this juncture, revisiting the pages of an important literature wherein the plant is discussed along with its different formulations is very much needed.

Bhava prakasha is an important work of Ayurveda which is enumerated among “ Laghu trayi ”.It is the popular book among vaidyas for centuries [ 9 ]. It is one of the classical books of Bhavamishra . The historians of Ayurveda consider Bhavamishra as a bridge between medieval and modern period [ 10 ].He enlarged and extended the Ayurvedic science in tune with progress of time [ 11 ].The period of Bhava mishra is believed to be 16th century A.D. 10 This article is an earnest attempt to find out the importance and diversified aspect of Vasa in Bhavaprakasha

Materials

  • Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra available in Vol-1 in print form, commentated and translated by Dr.Bulusu Sitaram, published by Chaukhambha orientalia, reprint :2012.

  • Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra available in Vol-2 in print form, commentated and translated by Dr.Bulusu Sitaram, published by Chaukhambha orientalia,first edition :2010 were considered for the present review.

Methods:

  • Mentioning of vasa in Bhavaprakasha samhita is collected and complied.

  • Formulations of vasa prescribed for the treatment of various diseases were collected

  • Total numbers of formulations mentioned for various diseases were tabulated.

  • Literary analysis of the formulations was done

Observation and Results

Table-1 Varga/Gana of Vasa

S.No Khanda Varga/Gana
01 Purva khanda Guduchyadi varga
02 Madhyama khanda Pancha tikta gana
03 Madhyama khanda Pancha kashaya gana
04 Madhyama khanda Kanta kubja gana

Table -2 Names of Vasa mentioned in Bhavaprakash samhita

S.no Khanda Synonyms
01 Purva khanda Vasaka, Vasika, Bhisankmata,Simhika, Simhasya, Vajidanta, Atarusha , Atarushaka, Atarusha, Vrisha, Tamra, Simhaparna
02 Madhyama khanda Vasaka,Vrisha,Vrishaka,Atarusha Simhika,Simhanana,Simhasya

Properties of Vasa

Rasa Virya Guna Doshaghnata Reference
Kashaya , Tikta Sheeta Laghu Vata krit, Pitta kapha hara B.P.K. Gu . Varga

B.P.K. Gu . varga - Bhavaprakasha purva Khanda Guduchyadi varga

Indications Reference
Shwasahara, Kasahara, sheeta paha Hridya, Trushna shamaka, Artihara, Chardighna, Mehahara, Kusthaghna,Kshayapaha. Sheeta, Trushna, Arti, Shwasa, Kasa, Jwara, Chardi,Meha, Kustha, Kshaya B.P.K. Gu.Varga

Actions and indication of vasa mentioned in purva khanda

B.P.K. Gu.varga-Bhavaprakasha purva Khanda Guduchyadi varga

Table 6:Formulations of Vasa in Bhava prakasha samhita

S.NoFormulation Main IndicationsReferences 01 Lakshadi tailaJwara,Bhrama,shrama, to induce sleep B.M.K. 1/14502 Parpatadi kvathamJwara, Pipasa,Daha, Pittaraktayukta jwara B.M.K 1/34303 Mahadrakshadi kwathaPitta jwara B.M.K 1/35304 Vasa himaKasayukta jwara, Raktapitta B.M.K 1/35705 Guduchyadi kwathaPittaja jwara B.M.K 1/35806 Yavanyadi kwathaKasa, shwasa kaphaja jwara B.M.K 1/38307 Vasadi kwathaJwara, Kasa B.M.K 1/38408 Kiratadi kwathaVata kapha Jwara B.M.K 1/40509 Vasa rasa Pitta kapha jwara,Amlapitta,Kamala B.M.K 1/43610 KwathaRakta sthivana B.M.K 1/64911 Kshudradi kwathaJihvaka sannipata B.M.K1/66012 KwathaSandhi graham, Hanustambha,Manyastambha, B.M.K1/66413 KwathaKantha kubja B.M.K 1/69314 Kiratadi gana kashayaKantha kubja B.M.K 1/69415 KwathaChaturthaka jwara B.M.K 1/77016 Patoladi kwathaDurjala dosha B.M.K 1/83517 Dwatrimshat kwatha Sannipata Jwara Shwasa Balasa, Kasa, B.M.K 1/84518 Vasa swarasaKasa B.M.K 1/86119 KwathaHalimaka, Pandu, Kamala B.M.K 8/4920 HimaRaktapitta, Jwara,daha,Trushna, shosha B.M.K 9/2321 SwarasaRaktapitta, B.M.K 9/2722 KwathaRaktapitta, B.M.K 9/2723 PutapakaRaktapitta kasa jwara,kshaya B.M.K 9/2824 KwathaShwasa, Raktapitta B.M.K 9/3125B.M.K 9/3726 KhandakadyavalehaRaktapitta, Kshaya, Kasa,Parshva shula B.M.K 9/7527 Vasa kwatha Urdhwaga Amlapitta B.M.K 10/1228 KwathaAmlapitta B.M.K 10/1729 Shivapala pindiAmlapitta, Arochaka, Jwara, Daha,Shosha B.M.K 10/1830 VasavalehyaShwasa, Rajayakshma,Kasa,Parshwashula B.M.K 11/5531 KwathaPittaja kasa B.M.K 12/2432 SwarasaKshaya kasa, Raktasthivana B.M.K 12/2933 KwathaShwasa B.M.K 14/3834 BhramadyavalehaSwarabheda B.M.K 15/1835 Maha narayana tailaVatavyadhi B.M.K 24/29536 Rasnadi KwathaShula, Amavata B.M.K 26/13137 Maha rasnadi kwathaAmavata B.M.K 26/13238 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/3639 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/5040 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/5241 Guduchyadi ghritaVatarakta B.M.K 29/10242 Maha guduchi ghritaVatarakta,shosha, krostuka sheersha,Ghridrasi B.M.K 29/11443 Vidari ghritaMutraghata, Shwasa B.M.K 36/47-4844 Eladi kwathaMutrashmari, Mutrakrichrra B.M.K 37/1145 Vrusha kwathaKaphaja prameha (shanairmeha) B.M.K 38/4846 Loha rasayanaVata kaphadosha, Twak vikara, Kamala B.M.K 39/3247 Triphaladya tailamSthaulya, Pandu B.M.K 39/5848 Vasa swarasaDaurgandhya B.M.K 39/6949 Manjisthadi kashayaKustha,Vatarakta,Kandu,Dadru B.M.K 54/10150 KwathaSheeta pitta B.M.K 55/0751 KwathaVisarpa,Daha,Jwara, Shotha B.M.K 56/3452 KwathaPittaja visphota B.M.K 58/2053 KwathaDaha,Jwara,Visarpa,Vrana B.M.K 60/4254 KwathaMasoorika, Visarpa Jwara B.M.K 60/4755 Vasa swarasaJwara ,Masoorika B.M.K 60/6356 HimaSheetala Jvara B.M.K 60/6757 Kumari tailaMurcha,Halimaka,Hanugraha,Bhadirya B.M.K 62/4458 Vasa kwathaShwasa, Pinasa, Kasa,Netra roga, Vaiswarya B.M.K 63/24759 Darvyadi kwathaPradara B.M.K 68/17-1860 Pancha kashaya churnaPrasansini B.M.K.70/4361 ModakaYoniroga B.M.K.70/4962 Pancha tikta ganaVisarpa,Kustha B.M.K.71/9363 KwathaMukha mandika B.M.K 71/10464 Kwatha Kasa in children B.M.K 71/16065 Churna Shwasa, Kasa, Tamaka shwasa B.M.K. 71/163 S.NoFormulation Main IndicationsReferences 01 Lakshadi tailaJwara,Bhrama,shrama, to induce sleep B.M.K. 1/14502 Parpatadi kvathamJwara, Pipasa,Daha, Pittaraktayukta jwara B.M.K 1/34303 Mahadrakshadi kwathaPitta jwara B.M.K 1/35304 Vasa himaKasayukta jwara, Raktapitta B.M.K 1/35705 Guduchyadi kwathaPittaja jwara B.M.K 1/35806 Yavanyadi kwathaKasa, shwasa kaphaja jwara B.M.K 1/38307 Vasadi kwathaJwara, Kasa B.M.K 1/38408 Kiratadi kwathaVata kapha Jwara B.M.K 1/40509 Vasa rasa Pitta kapha jwara,Amlapitta,Kamala B.M.K 1/43610 KwathaRakta sthivana B.M.K 1/64911 Kshudradi kwathaJihvaka sannipata B.M.K1/66012 KwathaSandhi graham, Hanustambha,Manyastambha, B.M.K1/66413 KwathaKantha kubja B.M.K 1/69314 Kiratadi gana kashayaKantha kubja B.M.K 1/69415 KwathaChaturthaka jwara B.M.K 1/77016 Patoladi kwathaDurjala dosha B.M.K 1/83517 Dwatrimshat kwatha Sannipata Jwara Shwasa Balasa, Kasa, B.M.K 1/84518 Vasa swarasaKasa B.M.K 1/86119 KwathaHalimaka, Pandu, Kamala B.M.K 8/4920 HimaRaktapitta, Jwara,daha,Trushna, shosha B.M.K 9/2321 SwarasaRaktapitta, B.M.K 9/2722 KwathaRaktapitta, B.M.K 9/2723 PutapakaRaktapitta kasa jwara,kshaya B.M.K 9/2824 KwathaShwasa, Raktapitta B.M.K 9/3125B.M.K 9/3726 KhandakadyavalehaRaktapitta, Kshaya, Kasa,Parshva shula B.M.K 9/7527 Vasa kwatha Urdhwaga Amlapitta B.M.K 10/1228 KwathaAmlapitta B.M.K 10/1729 Shivapala pindiAmlapitta, Arochaka, Jwara, Daha,Shosha B.M.K 10/1830 VasavalehyaShwasa, Rajayakshma,Kasa,Parshwashula B.M.K 11/5531 KwathaPittaja kasa B.M.K 12/2432 SwarasaKshaya kasa, Raktasthivana B.M.K 12/2933 KwathaShwasa B.M.K 14/3834 BhramadyavalehaSwarabheda B.M.K 15/1835 Maha narayana tailaVatavyadhi B.M.K 24/29536 Rasnadi KwathaShula, Amavata B.M.K 26/13137 Maha rasnadi kwathaAmavata B.M.K 26/13238 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/3639 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/5040 KwathaVatarakta B.M.K 29/5241 Guduchyadi ghritaVatarakta B.M.K 29/10242 Maha guduchi ghritaVatarakta,shosha, krostuka sheersha,Ghridrasi B.M.K 29/11443 Vidari ghritaMutraghata, Shwasa B.M.K 36/47-4844 Eladi kwathaMutrashmari, Mutrakrichrra B.M.K 37/1145 Vrusha kwathaKaphaja prameha (shanairmeha) B.M.K 38/4846 Loha rasayanaVata kaphadosha, Twak vikara, Kamala B.M.K 39/3247 Triphaladya tailamSthaulya, Pandu B.M.K 39/5848 Vasa swarasaDaurgandhya B.M.K 39/6949 Manjisthadi kashayaKustha,Vatarakta,Kandu,Dadru B.M.K 54/10150 KwathaSheeta pitta B.M.K 55/0751 KwathaVisarpa,Daha,Jwara, Shotha B.M.K 56/3452 KwathaPittaja visphota B.M.K 58/2053 KwathaDaha,Jwara,Visarpa,Vrana B.M.K 60/4254 KwathaMasoorika, Visarpa Jwara B.M.K 60/4755 Vasa swarasaJwara ,Masoorika B.M.K 60/6356 HimaSheetala Jvara B.M.K 60/6757 Kumari tailaMurcha,Halimaka,Hanugraha,Bhadirya B.M.K 62/4458 Vasa kwathaShwasa, Pinasa, Kasa,Netra roga, Vaiswarya B.M.K 63/24759 Darvyadi kwathaPradara B.M.K 68/17-1860 Pancha kashaya churnaPrasansini B.M.K.70/4361 ModakaYoniroga B.M.K.70/4962 Pancha tikta ganaVisarpa,Kustha B.M.K.71/9363 KwathaMukha mandika B.M.K 71/10464 Kwatha Kasa in children B.M.K 71/16065 Churna Shwasa, Kasa, Tamaka shwasa B.M.K. 71/163

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

Table -8 Kwatha / Kashaya containing Vasa

S.No Kwatha Reference
01 Parpatadi kwatha B.M.K 1/343
02 Mahadrakshadi kwatha B.M.K 1/353
03 Guduchyadi kwatha B.M.K 1/358
04 Yavanyadi kwatha B.M.K 1/383
05 Vasadi kwatha B.M.K 1/384
06 Kiratadi kwatha B.M.K 1/405
07 Kwatha B.M.K 1/649
08 Kshudradi kwatha B.M.K1/660
09 Kwatha B.M.K1/664
10 Kwatha B.M.K 1/693
11 Kwatha B.M.K 1/770
12 Patoladi kwatha B.M.K 1/835
13 Dwatrimshat kwatha B.M.K 1/845
14 Kwatha B.M.K 8/49
15 Kwatha B.M.K 9/27
16 Kwatha B.M.K 9/31
17 Vasa kwatha B.M.K 10/12
18 Kwatha B.M.K 10/17
19 Kwatha B.M.K 12/24
20 Kwatha B.M.K 14/38
21 Rasnadi Kwatha B.M.K 26/131
22 Maha rasnadi kwatha B.M.K 26/132
23 Kwatha B.M.K 29/36
24 Kwatha B.M.K 29/50
25 Kwatha B.M.K 29/52
26 Eladi kwatha B.M.K 37/11
27 Vrusha kwatha B.M.K 38/48
28 Manjisthadi kashaya B.M.K 54/101
29 Kwatha B.M.K 55/07
30 Kwatha B.M.K 56/34
31 Kwatha B.M.K 58/20
32 Kwatha B.M.K 60/42
33 Kwatha B.M.K 60/47
34 Vasa kwatha B.M.K 63/247
35 Darvyadi kwatha B.M.K 68/17-18
36 Kwatha B.M.K 71/104
37 Kwatha B.M.K 71/160

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Hima Reference
01 Vasa hima B.M.K 1/357
02 Hima B.M.K 9/23
03 Hima B.M.K 60/67

Hima containing Vasa

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Churna Reference
01 Pancha kashaya churna B.M.K.70/43
02 Churna B.M.K. 71/163

Churna containing Vasa

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Ghrita Reference
01 Guduchyadi ghrita B.M.K 29/102
02 Maha guduchi ghrita B.M.K 29/114
03 Vidari ghrita B.M.K 36/47-48

Ghrita containing Vasa

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Avaleha Reference
01 Khandakadyavaleha B.M.K 9/75
02 Vasavalehya B.M.K 11/55
03 Bhramadyavaleha B.M.K 15/18

Avaleha containing Vasa

B.M.K-Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Taila Reference
01 Lakshadi taila B.M.K. 1/145
02 Maha narayana taila B.M.K 24/295
03 Triphaladya tailam B.M.K 39/58
04 Kumari taila B.M.K 62/44

Taila containing Vasa

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.No Modaka Reference
01 Modaka B.M.K.70/49
02 Shivapala pindi B.M.K 10/18
03 Kiratadi gana kashaya B.M.K 1/694
04 Loha rasayana B.M.K 39/32
05 Pancha tikta gana B.M.K.71/93

Miscellaneous formulations containing Vasa

B.M.K- Bhavaprakasha madhyama khanda

S.no Type of formulation Number of formulation
01 Swarasa 08
02 Kwatha 37
03 Hima 03
04 Ghrita 03
05 Taila 04
06 Avaleha 03
07 Churna 02
08 Miscellanous 05
Total 65

Total number of formulations and different dosage forms of Vasa

DISCUSSION :

On Gana/ Varga : Vasa finds its place in Guduchyadi varga of purva khanda and pancha kashaya gana , pancha tikta gana and kanta kubja gana of madhyama khanda . Among these ganas, Pancha kashaya gana poses a question about the inclusion of Vasa . But, Bhavamishra mentioned its rasa as kashaya rasa , followed by tikta rasa. This can be taken as basis of inclusion of Vasa in pancha kashaya gana . It is really interesting to note that the drugs falling in pancha kashaya gana in Bhavaprakasha are Vasa, Vacha, Patola,Priyangu and Nimba . A.K.Nadakarni- the author of Indian meteria medica also considered Vasa, Vacha, Patola, Priyangu and Nimba as panca kashaya gana 12. But, according to acharya Sushruta , pancha kashaya gana includes Tinduka, Haritaki, Lodhra ,Lajjalu and Amalaki 13 .

On Botanical name: The plant Vasa is commonly called by the name Adhatoda vasica Nees. Infact, this is the synonym of Justicia adhatoda L. belongs to Acanthaceae . Justacia adhatoda L. is an accepted name 14.

On Basonym: The basonym Vasa signifies as to,the one which grows like a bush15. It also carries another meaning as to, that which cures the diseases like shwasa 16

On synonyms: A total of 14 synonyms that include 12 synonyms from Purvakhanda and 2 synonyms viz. Vrishaka and Simhanana are found in madhyama khanda. Among the 14 synonyms, Vasaka , Simhasya, Vrishaka, Vajidanta and Vrisha depict the morphological characters of the plant as follows

  • Vasaka - that which covers the ground with dense foliage17

  • Simhasya - The flower resembles the mouth of a lion18

  • Vrisha, Vrishaka - Its flower contains profuse nectar19

  • Vajidanta - its flower resembles the horse`s tooth 20.

While, Vasaka and Bhisankmata, describe its importance in therapeutics. The synonym Vrisha is so much close to Vrishaa( the synonym of Dravanti ) that sometimes, creates confusion. Similarly, Simhi (the synonym of Brihati )is close to simhika of Vasa .

On properties: According to Bhavaprakasha purva khanda , Vasa possesses kashaya tikta rasa , and sheeta virya . It acts as vata krit and kapha pitta hara . It is very clear that it is a samana pratyaya rabdha darvya and follows the principle-1 of mechanism of drug action as explained by acharya charaka 21 . Accordingly, it undergoes katu vipaka . Since, the rasa is more dominant; hence, acharya Bhavamishra has not mentioned katu vipaka in the verse. The plant actions are described on the basis of sheeta virya supported by kashaya, tikta rasa . Vasa with its, kashaya tikta rasa and sheeta virya acts as pitta hara and kapha hara .

On actions: acharya Bhavamishra considered Vasa as Swarya, Hridya, Trishna nigrahana , artihara, Swasahara, Kasahara, Jwaraghna, Pramehaghna, Chardi nigrahana,Kusthaghna and kshayapaha in purvakhanda . Surprizingly, only one formulation in the form of decoction is explained for the treatment Prameha viz shanairmeha .

On the useful part: Useful part of vasa is not mentioned in many formulations. The formulations such as kwatha and vasa swarasa explained in different contexts, have clearly included the part of vasa as mula (B.M.K 29/52) or patra (B.M.K 39/69) (B.M.K 9/27) (B.M.K 9/28) The other verses describing many formulations explained in madhyama khanda include the term either Atarusha or Vrisha or Vasaka or Vasa . According to anukta paribhasha of Sharangdhara , root has to be taken as the useful part when the part of a plant is not specified in the verse 22Thus, a lot of formulations containing vasa , explained in the Bhavaprakasha need to include root of Vasa as an ingredient.

Vasa as anupana / Sahapana : Acharya Bhavamishra tried Vasa as the drug in many conditions. But, he also tried it as a sahapana / anupana of a formulation (B.M.K 9/37) to treat rakta pitta . This proves that Vasa can also be an effective vehicle to reach the drug target.

Vasa as bhavana dravya : Vasa finds its place as a bhavana dravya in one of the formulations (B.M.K12/29). This gives an idea that Vasa can be used as a bhavana dravya for kashaya rasa dravyas to enhance their efficacy.

Vasa as vamanadravya : Vasa is used as a vamana dravya to treat sheeta pitta by inducing emesis. Vasa is used along with Patola and Nimba for this purpose. Since all three are vatakrit in nature, stimulates udana vata to bring emesis.

On the formulations: 65 formulations containing vasa are found in the Bhavaprakasha Samhita especially in madhyama khanda . Among them, 37 are in the form of decoction which is the highest type of formulation.While, the swarasa is second highest ( 8 ) type of formulation containing Vasa .

Besides, the literary search of Vasa in Bhavaprakasha yielded the following important facts

  • The list of indication of V asa mentioned in madhyamakhanda, is expanded in comparison to purvakhanda which is evident from the fact that Vasa entered as one of the ingredients of many formulations advocated for various diseases.

  • None of the formulations containing Vasa has been found in uttara khanda

  • Surprizingly, only one formulation advocated for the treatment of prameha in madhyama khanda .

  • Vasa is credited with a controversial action- sheetapaha . For the reason, sheeta prasham ana dravyas usually possess ushna virya. The controversy can be eliminated if the action is to pacify sheeta of kapha with its kashaya tikta and ruksha properties.

CONCLUSION:

On analyzing the various aspects of Vasa explained in Bhavaprakasha samhita , it appears that it has been subjected to different thoughts of the author- Bhavamishra. He not only utilized it as a chief drug in many formulations, but also as a supportive drug in various forms such as a bhavana dravya , vamana dravya and as an anupana as well. Out of 65 formulations of Vasa, 37 (56.92%) are kwatha and 8(12.30%) are swarasa . Thus, the aqueous preparations of Vasa are highly appreciated in Bhavaprakasha samhita . This review will direct towards better understanding of Vasa along with its wide range of utility thereof. With this, it can be concluded that Vasa is a hidden gold in Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank my wife Dr.Sampada shekhar for extending the support to during this study.