Articles

The Effects of Working Motivation, Individual Characteristics and Working Environment on Employees Job Satisfaction

Wisnu Hardiyanto, Boge Triatmanto, Abdul Manan,
Article Date Published : 30 January 2019 | Page No.: 5256-5260 | Google Scholar

Abstract

This study has the aims to analyze the effect of motivation, individual characteristics and working environment on the job satisfaction of PT. PLN (Persero) Distribution East Java - Malang Area. The population in this study is all employees of PT. PLN Malang Area consisting of 65 employees; samples were taken from the total population of 65 employees using a census. Data testing techniques using validity test, reliability test, data analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis. Based on the results of testing, the validity and reliability of all variables such as working motivation, individual characteristics, working environment and job satisfaction, by calculating the correlation coefficient, all items are valid and reliable. Motivation has an effect on working satisfaction, individual characteristics have an effect on working satisfaction and working environment has an effect on working satisfaction. This study found that motivation, individual characteristics and working environment were able to improve the working satisfaction of PT. PLN (Persero) Distribution East Java-Malang Area.

Keywords: Motivation, Individual Characteristics, Working Environment, Job Satisfaction.

Introduction

A proper human resource management helps in obtaining maximum individual development, effective working relationships between companies and employees. In the era of globalization of human resources in each company or organization, it has an important role for the progress of a company. When a competition between companies is increasingly competitive, it will result on the more competitive a competition can make a company better deal with an external and internal problem of the company. Therefore, the company always carries out various innovations and must pay attention to aspects of work regarding human resources, one of which job satisfaction must be created companies so that love, discipline, dedication and work morale can increase. Handoko ( 2000) stated that job satisfaction is a condition where employees feel passionate or not enthusiastic in doing the work given. Every time employees do their work, employees feel the need to get supporting factors that can give employees satisfaction while working. Each employee certainly has a desire that is not the same between one another, but every desire must have limits. Like the motivation of employees who do a job because they want to get what employees need. According to Griffin ( 2007) motivation is something in someone's personal desire to improve the quality of work in order to continue to increase and be better and have the nature of a sense of responsibility to every job that is charged to employees in order to achieve company goals.

  1. Discipline issues that violate company rules that can impact dismissal until resignation is a form of employees who are not satisfied with the company. Therefore, the need for support fosters confidence for employees to achieve Discipline issues that violate company rules that can impact dismissal until resignation is a form of employees who are not satisfied with the company. Therefore, the need for support fosters confidence for employees to achieve

organizational goals that can be influenced by the individual characteristics of each employee itself. Gibson ( 2006) described that individual characteristics is characteristics that make employees different from others. Every employee's differences also determine the different abilities and innovations of each employee that must be utilized by each company to develop the capabilities of each employee and utilize it to find the best solutions for the company's development so that the company continues to grow.

The work environment includes small things in it that support employees to provide good service to consumers and can affect relations between employees and leaders in the company. Nitisemito ( 2002) said that the work environment is a variety of tools in the company that aim to help the development or progress of each employee and help employees complete their work.

There is the importance of carrying out various innovations and need to pay attention to aspects of work regarding human resources so that employees can provide maximum service to the community. Based on this description, researchers are interested in conducting research and knowing whether work motivation, individual characteristics and work environment have a significant influence on job satisfaction of employees of PT. PLN. ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area.

Job Satisfaction

Rivai ( 2004) stated that job satisfaction is different between employees with each other. Therefore, every assessment to employees must be different from the high level of satisfaction in the assessment of activities that will make the level of employee satisfaction high. Thus, from that satisfaction is a form of evaluation that basically shows the condition of employees between good or not good, satisfied or dissatisfied. Employees feel satisfied if every job given can be handled well and get what the employee wants.

Robbins ( 2008) stated that the need for employee job satisfaction as a good trait about an employee's task through the final process of improving the character of the employee. Employees have different satisfaction employees with high satisfaction have a good attitude in completing a job, different from employees with a low level of job satisfaction addressing a job is not good at completing a job. Employee satisfaction is very important to be fulfilled so that every work is done properly and correctly, on the contrary if employee satisfaction is not fulfilled the work provided is not done well and correctly. This must be created by the company so that love, discipline, dedication and work morale can increase.

Working Motivation

Each employee certainly has a desire that is not the same between one another, but every desire must have a limit, as well as motivation of employees who do a job because they want to get what employees need, Handoko ( 2001) stated that motivation is a condition where the employee gets a positive boost to always work as well as possible to achieve the goals of the company.

Employees certainly want the quality of work and skills recognized by the company so that they can show each job correctly. Hasibuan ( 2010) stated that work motivation is an effort for employees to work better individually or in groups. This is done so that employees work more effectively and mobilize every ability they have so that the work is always completed on time. Rivai ( 2004) stated that work motivation is a high desire of employees to give the best to the company and be responsible for the work that is charged to employees.

Individual Characteristics

  1. Individual characteristics are characteristics that make the employee different from the others. Subyantoro ( 2009) stated that individual characteristics are the characteristics of each employee that differ in terms of their views or abilities. In a company, these differences will always help the company in solving problems. In addition, the difference between each employee will make each employee's satisfaction also different even though he works in one company. Individual characteristics are characteristics that make the employee different from the others. Subyantoro ( 2009) stated that individual characteristics are the characteristics of each employee that differ in terms of their views or abilities. In a company, these differences will always help the company in solving problems. In addition, the difference between each employee will make each employee's satisfaction also different even though he works in one company.

Every employee difference in terms of quality of work or innovation will help a company to achieve its goals. This difference will complement the weak side of a company so that the existence of the company is maintained Thoha ( 2009). Individual characteristics are differences in the nature and behavior of each employee that describes the condition of each employee and distinguishes it from other employees. ( Robbins 2007).

Working Environment

Sedarmayanti ( 2001) stated that the work environment is a supporting tool that can help and facilitate employees in work including small things in it that can affect employees in carrying out their duties, Sukanto and Indriyo ( 2001) say that the work environment is everything that is in around workers who can influence work. The work environment includes lighting, controlling noise, cleanliness and comfort.

The work environment is said to be good if the environment makes employees feel happy and comfortable, this kind of environment is what every employee wants. A good environment makes employees work better, Rivai ( 2004) stated that the work environment is everything in a company that supports the work activities of each employee.

Research Conceptual Framework

This is dealing with the relationship of the effect of motivation, individual characteristics and working environment on employees’ job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a dependent variable that is influenced by three independent variables consists of working motivation, individual characteristics and working environment. The motivation variable is measured based on indicators of the need for achievement, the need for affiliation and the need for power Hasibuan ( 2010). Meanwhile, the individual characteristic variables are measured by indicators of employees ability and attitudes Robbins ( 2007). Physical working environment and non-physical working environment, Sedarmayanti ( 2001). From the three independent variables will be analyzed simultaneously either partially or partially in terms of knowing which of the independent variables has the dominant influence on job satisfaction.

Figure 1:

Hypothesis

  1. It is assumed that motivation, individual characteristics and working environment have a significant effect on the job satisfaction of PT. PLN ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area.

  2. It is assumed that the working environment has a dominant influence on the job satisfaction of PT. PLN ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area.

Research Methods

  1. In order that this discussion does not expand, the scope of research related to human resource management is limited, especially to examine the effect of motivation, individual characteristics and working environment on job satisfaction. The location of this research was conducted at Jl. General Basuki Rahmad No 100 Malang, as for the object chosen in this study were employees of PT. PLN ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area.In order that this discussion does not expand, the scope of research related to human resource management is limited, especially to examine the effect of motivation, individual characteristics and working environment on job satisfaction. The location of this research was conducted at Jl. General Basuki Rahmad No 100 Malang, as for the object chosen in this study were employees of PT. PLN ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area.

The population of this study is all employees of PT. PLN which numbered 65 employees. The sample from this study is a total population of 65 employees, researchers took the entire population to be used as respondents or based on census.

The data type of this research is quantitative data with the data source is primary data obtained directly from the original source. The data needed in this study was collected through questionnaires to respondents conducted by spreading a list of statements to employees selected as research samples. Tabulation of the collected data was carried out, then processed with the help of the SPSS statistical program. The instrument of this study is a questionnaire that is arranged sequentially according to indicators of research variables. The measurement scale used in this study is the Likert scale.

Results and Discussion

The results of testing the validity and reliability of all variables such as working motivation, individual characteristics, working environment, job satisfaction by calculating the correlation coefficient are conveyed that all items scattered in each indicator are valid and reliable variables. The results of the validity test show that all r_counts have a value of more than 0.361, then all items of variable statements are declared valid and reliability tests show the number on Cronbach's Alpha is 0.60 which means that the research instrument can be said to be reliable.

Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

From the results of data processing, the analysis results are as follows:

Y = -11.777 + 0.433 X1 + 0.642 X2 + 0.558 X3 + e

The multiple linear regression line equations can be explained as follows.

a is a magnitude constant of -11,777 which means that if the independent variable is zero then the job satisfaction variable Y value is -11,777. b1 is the regression coefficient X1 of 0.433. This means that each addition of one unit of job satisfaction variable will affect the Y working satisfaction variable of 0.433 assuming another independent variable is constant.

b2 is the regression coefficient X2 of 0.642. This means that each addition of one unit of individual characteristic variables will influence the Y job satisfaction variable of 0.642 assuming another independent variable is constant. b3 is the X3 regression coefficient of 0.558. This means that every addition of one unit of working environment variable will affect the Y job satisfaction variable of 0.558 assuming another independent variable is constant.

Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, it is known that the coefficient of determination denoted by R Square is 0.733, this means that the job satisfaction variable of PT. PLN ( Persero) Distribution of East Java - Malang Area can be explained by variables of working motivation, working characteristics and working environment.

Hypothesis test results indicate that motivation has an effect on employee job satisfaction with a regression value of 0.232 with a SE value of 0.154 and a t value of 2.802 and a Sig value of 0.007. This means that the effect of motivation on job satisfaction is statistically significant at α level of 5% (because the Sig value is 0.007 ≤ 0.05) meaning that the higher the working motivation obtained by the employee, the higher the job satisfaction felt by the employee.

  1. Individual characteristics affect employee job satisfaction with a regression value of 0.354 with a SE value of 0.160 and a t value of 4.005 and a Sig value of 0.000. This means that the effect of individual characteristics on job satisfaction is statistically significant at α level of 5% (because the Sig value is 0,000 ≤ 0,05) meaning that the better the individual characteristics, the higher the job satisfaction felt by its employees.Individual characteristics affect employee job satisfaction with a regression value of 0.354 with a SE value of 0.160 and a t value of 4.005 and a Sig value of 0.000. This means that the effect of individual characteristics on job satisfaction is statistically significant at α level of 5% (because the Sig value is 0,000 ≤ 0,05) meaning that the better the individual characteristics, the higher the job satisfaction felt by its employees.

The working environment has an effect on employee job satisfaction with a regression value of 0.414 with an SE value of 0,129 and t value of 4,312 and Sig value of 0,000. This means that the influence of the working environment on job satisfaction statistics is significant at the α level of 5% (because the Sig value is 0,000 ≤ 0,05) means that the more comfortable the working environment is, the higher the job satisfaction felt by its employees, this is because there is support for facilities and infrastructure as well as convenient spatial and building.

Proving which independent variable is most dominant influences the dependent variable by finding the largest regression coefficient, the largest value is found in the working environment variable with a regression coefficient of 0.414 while the regression coefficient value individual characteristic variables of 0.354 and regression coefficient values ​​of motivation variables of 0.232. Thus, the working environment is the dominant variable that influences job satisfaction.

Discussion

The results of the study show that motivation affects the job satisfaction of PT. PLN. Employees with high work motivation will try to work according to the standard time that has been set. The existence of high job satisfaction felt by employees will encourage employees to work more passionately, and vice versa. Work motivation is really needed by an employee to be able to achieve a high job satisfaction. Work motivation of PT. PLN is good. The need for achievement, the need for affiliation and the need for power that employees have got makes employees strive to carry out their duties with enthusiasm and more active. A good relationship with the leader, co-workers who help each other both in one division and outside the division makes employees motivated to work and support each other. As Hasibuan ( 2010) stated that work motivation is an effort for employees to work better individually or in groups. This is done so that employees work more effectively and mobilize every ability they have so that the work is always completed on time. If employees are motivated to be better at carrying out their duties, employees feel satisfied with their needs that have been fulfilled. This is supported by research conducted by Lumentut et al ( 2015) and Ratnasari et al ( 2013) which stated that work motivation influences job satisfaction.

The results showed that individual characteristics had a significant effect on job satisfaction of PT. PLN. Employees who have individual characteristics that are good at carrying out work will result in better job satisfaction for employees of PT. PLN. Individual characteristics factors include abilities, attitudes and skills, where the three factors in a job will make it easier for employees to carry out tasks assigned by the company. Ability, attitudes and skills have a positive impact in achieving employee job satisfaction. As the opinion of Subyantoro ( 2009) stated that individual characteristics are the characteristics of each employee that varies both in terms of views or abilities. In a company these differences will always help the company in solving problems. This will support the achievement of company goals. This is supported by research conducted by Tamaka et al ( 2017) and Mahayanti et al ( 2017) which state that individual characteristics influence job satisfaction.

The results of the study show that the work environment has an effect on the job satisfaction of PT. PLN and become the dominant variable by having the highest regression coefficient that affects job satisfaction. The work environment consists of a physical work environment and a non-physical work environment, where a good and conducive work environment can create a sense of comfort, and create more harmonious relationships so that employee needs are met. Therefore, the completion of work within the company can run well. As the opinion of Sedarmayanti ( 2001), she stated that work environment is a supporting tool that can help and facilitate employees in work, including small things in it that can affect employees in carrying out their duties, the work environment that exists in PT. PLN is conducive. Companies need to create a decent work environment for their employees, a work environment that must support both lighting systems, air conditions, noise, work facilities, organizational policies and organizational culture, and efforts to provide needs for achievement can help employees be more enthusiastic and good at work. If employees feel happy at work, the job satisfaction of their employees is good and can support their performance to be better. This is supported by research conducted by Aslam et al ( 2013) and Parimita et al ( 2013) which stated that the work environment has an effect on employee job satisfaction.

Conclusion

The research findings show that the work motivation of PT. High PLN can encourage employees to carry out their duties and responsibilities within the scope of their work properly. Individual characteristics of employees of PT.PLN can make employees easier to carry out their duties. The working environment conditions of PT. PLN have a work environment that according to employees feels comfortable so that it supports in the process of completing tasks that are charged. Job satisfaction of employees of PT. PLN majority is satisfied, this can be seen from the rare conflicts that occur within the company and employees feel comfortable in doing their jobs.

Working motivation, individual characteristics and work environment influence the job satisfaction of PT. PLN, which means that employees have high work motivation, good individual characteristics and a supportive work environment can improve employee job satisfaction.

The work environment has a dominant influence on job satisfaction of employees of PT. PLN, this shows that the main factors considered to improve job satisfaction are employees of PT. PLN is a work environment.

Suggestion

The management should pay attention to the noise level of the surrounding environment and the calmness of work by putting plants in a corner of the room that is quite tight so that it can reduce noise and can provide fresh oxygen in the room. In addition, indoor noise can also be installed such as glasswool so as to create a soundproof room so that employees feel calm and do not trigger the emergence of employee dissatisfaction when completing tasks assigned and hinder their work.

The leadership or management of the company needs to provide training and development such as discussions, seminar programs, comparative study programs to employees who are not happy to help and give their opinions to other parties so that employees can gain more insight, higher social sense and more confidence in give his opinion to other parties. Leaders or management must pay more attention to each employee's needs so that employees are more motivated in their work.

The leadership or management holds regular joint meetings, which activities can make the relationship between co-workers both in one division and outside the division more closely and can provide opportunities for employees to convey their aspirations so that the company can be better in the future and all complaints from employees can be conveyed.

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Article Details


Issue: Vol 6 No 1 (2019)
Page No.: 5256-5260
Section: Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsshi/v6i1.09

How to Cite

Hardiyanto, W., Triatmanto, B., & Manan, A. (2019). The Effects of Working Motivation, Individual Characteristics and Working Environment on Employees Job Satisfaction. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 6(1), 5256-5260. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsshi/v6i1.09

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