The article examines the structure and frequency of use of the verb in dialects as a phraseological unit. Since the verb plays an important role in enriching the vocabulary of our language, it also manifests itself in a phraseological basis.
Verbs, in the literary language and in Nakhchivan group of dialects are rich with their polysemy, omonism, synonymy, and in general, lexical-semantic features. This wealth reveals the importance of the role of the verb in the formation of phraseological units.
Both in the literary language and in the vocabulary of Nakhchivan dialect, the verb can be used in different meanings in different phraseological units. For example, in Nakhichivan dialect the word “vurmag” (to beat) means different meanings in different phraseological units: yashmag vurmag - to hide a face; pal vurmag - obstruct; hava vurmag - carpet weaving; gahra vurmag - hang around (Shahbuz); peyvas vurmah - vaccinate (Sharur); sadama vurmah - to harm; myrt vurmah - chat (Nakhichevan); tin vurmah - coal poisoning (Ordubad), etc. As can be seen from the examples, the verb “vurmag” consists of eight different meanings within eight different phraseological units.
Variance and synonymy, which are ones of the types of phraseological units, are more noticeable in Nakhichevan group of dialects.
Phraseology and phraseological units have not been investigated and studied in dialectology as far as in literary language. The majority of researchers of dialects in Azerbaijani linguistics have either spoken on phraseological units superficially or have not spoken about them at all. The comparative study of phraseological units in dialects of Nakhchivan group with literary language and other dialects has not been conducted yet separately. Research of phraseological units on the basis of Nakhchivan dialects can help to study their etymology, lexical-semantic features. It should be noted that “non-literary expressions and phrases are called phraseological dialectism” (1, p. 258)
Thus, the comparative study of phraseological units on the basis of Nakhchivan dialects and materials is firstly carried out in this article.
dialects of the Azerbaijani language were studied from various aspects in Azerbaijan linguistics, a number of scientific issues were analyzed, and valuable scientific articles and works were written for linguistics. But the phraseological units are widely scientifically investigated in dialectic lexicons, especially in Nakhchivan dialects for the first time. Research of the phraseological units in dialects are one of the ways to fight against the impact of various elements on the dialects that reflect the people's biography.
The Azerbaijani language dialects and phrases, reflecting the events of the ancient past that have taken place in the people's fate, serve as a lively and reliable source for clarifying many controversial issues. In this regard, the study of phraseology should not be kept within limits of literary language, but
should also be studied in dialects. It is a pity that, in recent years, in a very small part of the scientific studies, works and articles on dialects have been thoroughly touched upon in the issue of phraseology. For instance, in N.Hasanoa’s dissertation “Lexicon of Yevlakh dialects of Azerbaijani language” (to get her PhD) (2010) were touched on the field of phraseology. Phraseology has not been touched in the other works written on other dialects.
The study of phraseological units in dialects and quotes will show us how rich the oral form of our language is. “Dialect looks at what's happening around it and tests every form of intelligence and agility. The dialect creates a clear picture, it revives a dull subject and delivers to the listener. Dialect increases proximity, as it allows the speaker to state thin points, even talk about his or her own personal details” (2. p. 118).
Materials and Methods
Charles Balli, who has had a great influence on the development of phraseology with his theory in linguistics history, engaged in phraseology issues comprehensively for the first time. S.Balli who defines phraseology as an independent part of lexicology, writes: “... a number of words tend to be closer to one another than to other words .... Unit stabilized in language is called “phraseological expression”. The “phraseological group” is formed with independent words, but the words of “phraseological unit” are completely related to each other. S.Balli also points out invariability of phraseological units: “... language can change its function to express something. But phraseological unit never changes” (3. p. 34-80, 29 )
Looking at the works of researchers on the position of phraseology in the field of linguistics, we come across different ideas.
In A.A.Sakhmatov's opinion, it is better to study the word combination (phraseology units) from the syntactic aspect (4, p.49), but in V.N.Telia’s view, phraseology can not develop without lexicology, syntax and semicology: “... we can not achieve a certain goal by analyzing the phraseology from the syntactic aspect. Phraseology can not develop without lexicology, syntax and semicology” (5, p. 13, 20). V. N. Thalia describes phraseology as follows: “Frazeology is the expression of current ideas” (5. p.18)
According to N.N.Amosov, “Stable word combinations can not be framed ina lexicology or syntax. Because the methodology of their study does not coincide with other languages” (6.p.5)
V.P.Dzukov says: “Phraseology is a unique section of linguistics that examines the semantic, morphological, syntactic and stylistic features of phraseologism. (7.p.15)
Phraseology is also involved in research in Turkish languages, and many works have emerged in this direction. S.K.Kenesbayev mentioned the following thoughts for phraseological units and was met with sympathy by many linguists: “All phraseological units are stable word combinations, but not all word combinations are phraseological units” (8. p.8).
Whereas the first research on the phraselological units in Kyrgyz language belongs to D.Shukurova (9), the first large-scale and valuable research in this direction is related to the name of J.Osmanova (10). Phraseological units in this language has been in the research center of many scholars. We can mention the names of R. Eghemberdiyev (11) and Q.J.Jamshitov (12).
The verb is part of speech, which is distinguished as a core element of the Turkish language, including the Azerbaijani language. This wealth can be explained by the diversity of the form of the verbs, its structural versatility, polysemy and other features.
“Verbs are a frequently used and more metaphorical part of speech. Verbs play an important role in enriching the phraseological composition of our language. Since verbs are multi-categorical, words borrowed from other languages cannot be included in a number of simple verbs. Borrowed words can be included in a series of verbs - only in the form of compound and complex words - i.e. expressed by suffixes of purely Azeri language or verbs, the second part of which is in Azeri (the words olmag, etmak, elamak). Therefore, the role of verbs to preserve the national originality of our language is great ”(3, p.165). In general, this quality, which is fully characteristic of Turkic languages, turns into a means of revealing the capabilities of our language.
“The verb plays an important role in enriching the vocabulary of a language through imagery. In this sense, phraseological units occupy an important place in the language. Their second part consists of verbs. For example, gulag asmag - to listen, basha salmag - to explain, dil tokmak - to persuade, etc. ”(4. p. 21)
People’s spoken language and folklore are one of the main sources of phraseological units in our language. It should be noted that the dialects of the Azerbaijani language play an important role in the formation of phraseological units based on the verb.
In the Nakhchivan group of dialects, as in the literary language, the verbs are rich in meaning, plurality, stability, synonymy and lexical-semantic features. This wealth reveals the importance of the role of verbs in the formation of phraseological units. As in literary language, verbs can be used in different opinions in different phraseological units of the Nakhchivan dialects. For example, in the following phraseological units the verb "voormag" (beat) is used differently in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects: yashmag voormag - hide the face; palim voormag - obstruct; hawa voormag - carpet weaving; Gehra Vormag - wander around (Shahbuz); peyvas voormah - vaccinate (Sharur); sadama voormah - to harm; myrt voormah - chat (Nakhichevan); tin voormah - coal poisoning (Ordubad), etc. As can be seen from the examples, the verb “woormag” consists of eight different meanings within eight different phraseological units.
25 meanings of the verb “Kasmak” (cut out) are shown In the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language (18. p. 694, 695, 696). Many meanings of the verb “Kasmak” are shown in the vocabulary of Nakhchivan dialects, too.
Ahdini kasmak - to beat (Sharur); veyran kasmak - to separate (Ordubad); kyasamat kasmak –– to threaten (Nakhichevan), etc.
One of the simple verbs, rich in meaning in the modern Azerbaijani language, is the verm "vermak" (give). Today in our language this verb verb also has a lot of meanings. Since, in the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language, it can be seen 15 meanings of the verb “Vermak” (2. pp. 471, 472). This ambiguity is also reflected in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects:
aliminy vermyak (Sharur) - blame; to vermyak (Ordubad) - to force; zot vermyak (Sharur) - shiver; ganikh vermak - quench thirst (Nakhichevan); Veryana Vermyak (Sharur) - betray, etc.
29 meanings of the verb "galmak" (come) are given in the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language (18. p. 231, 232). This verb is also distinguished by its meaning. The polysemy of the verb "galmak" is also reflected in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects: eyreti gelmah (Sharur) - look strange; havigi galmah (Shahbuz) - to regret; urcheh hyalmah (Shahbuz) - to meet; Usana Gyalmah (Sharur) - tired; tov gyalmak (Ordubad) - to threaten; Dolakh Gyalmah (Nakhichevan) - to deceive; Dov Gyalmah (Nakhichevan) - to resist; dutdulu galmah (Nakhichevan) - to deceive; Ersiye Gyalmah (Sharur) - grow; pesh-pesh gyalmah (Nakhichevan) - to give; kef gyalmah (Sharur) - to deceive, etc.
One of the most distinguishing verbs is the verb “chikharmag” (pull out). In the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language, 17 meanings of this verb are given (19. p. 473, 474). In the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects, one can also notice the ambiguity of the verb “chikharmag”:
Hyangama chikharmag (Shahbuz) - to mess; shingyrykh chikharmakh (Ordubad) - to make noise; Shorun chikharmakh (Nakhichevan) - to spoil, etc.
The verb “dooshmak” also attracts attention as a part of phraseological unit. In the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language, 38 meanings of this verb are given (19. p. 723, 724, 725, 726, 727). In the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects one can also notice the ambiguity of the verb “dooshmak”:
Arazandooshmek (Shahbuz) - to be late; od dooshmeh (Sharur) - take offense; tisbirriya duşmeh (Ordubad) - to be in difficulty; Chul Dooshmeh (Nakhchivan) - tired; Dykhil Duchmeh (Nakhichevan) - to beg; duyukh dyushmyah (Nakhchivan) - to be aware, etc.
Despite the fact that the verb “galmag” (stay) is simple, but nevertheless it is distinguished by its polysemy. 19 meanings of this verb are given in the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language, (20. p. 25, 26). The polysemy of the verb “galmak” is also reflected in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects:
Caravangy galmah (Julfa) - be surprised; saviya galmah (Shahbuz) - to be barren; Sinseeya-Sinseeya Galmakh (Shahbuz, Nakhchivan) - to cry, etc.
The verb "danishmag" (to speak), which are given 7 meanings in the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language (19. p. 532, 533), is reflected in the following meanings in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects:
Danga-danga danishmakh (Nakhichevan, Sharur) - boast; sayil-bayir danishma (Shahbuz) - to rave; herze-hedyan danishma, heteren-peteren danishmah (Nakhchivan) - chat, etc.
As is seen from the examples, many of the simple verbs differ with their ambiguity both in the explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language and in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects. This polysemy plays an important role in the formation of various phraseological units. There are also verbs that, at least, are part of a phraseological unit:
Akhtuh chakmak (Nphich.) - to be sad; Alymyny atayine bukmak (Sharur) - blame; havar tapbakh (Shuzbuz, Sharur) - to rustle; kyasim satmah (Sharur) - to threaten; Dan demah (Ordubad) - to challenge; gacharaga salmah (Shahbuz) - to drive out; Ling Yera Salmah (Sharur) - sit; logaz goshmah (Sharur, Nakhich.), logaz doshamakh (Nakhich.), logaz elamakh (Shahbuz) - mock; ilim-ilim itmak (Nakhchivan.) - get lost; shetel gatmah (Julfa) - to obstruct; vayina oturmah (Nakhich.) - to mourn, grief; Shinji Sakhlamah (Julfa) - to pay attention; Zulu Getmah (Shahbuz) - tired; fyrygalhmakh (Sharur) – to be angry; shiraya chekmek (Sharur) - to deceive; daban almah (Sharur) - go fast; dandana goymah (Nakhchivan.) - Kindle, etc.
The structure of verbal phraseological units
All meaningful words included in the phrase express one common meaning, which leads to the formation of the concept of a phraseological unit. The first component of the verb phraseological combinations included in the vocabulary of the Nakhchivan dialects can be divided into the following types according to the form and expression:
- a) word without a suffix (noun in the nominative case) + verb
- b) noun in the dative case + verb
- c) noun in the accusative case + verb
- g) noun in the genitive case + verb
- d) circumstance + verb
- e) adverb+verb
- a) A word without a suffix (a noun with a suffix in the nominative case) + verb.
pyalvurmah - obstruct; gahmarchikhmah or gahmardurmah - to be on the side of someone; chilyachikharmah - do not sleep at night; giddy vermamah - do not substitute; zulugetme - tired; yashmakh vurmah - hide face; hava vurmah - carpet weaving; gehra vurmah - to wander; loghaz elamah - mock; sulu getmah - to want very much; (Shahbuz)
peyvas vurmah - to vaccinate; zot vermak - annoy; kyaf gyalmak - to deceive; kasimsatmah - to threaten; tar tokmah - grumble; (Sharur), havar tapbakh (Sharur, Shahbaz) - to rustle;
sadama-vurmah — damage; myrt vurmah - rave; kasamat kasmak - threaten; dola gyalmak - to deceive; dov gyalmak - Resist; pesh-pesh gyalmak - to give; logaz doshamak - mock; logaz goshmah - to mock (Nakhich. Sharur),
Tin vurmah - coal poisoning; to vermak - to force; tov gyalmak - threaten; shingirikh chikhartmah - to rustle; shur chikhartmah - to make noise (Ordubad, Sharur),
josh vermyak - rejoice; algichigy gostarmak –show power; shetel gatmag - obstruct; sinji sahlamah - to pay attention; (Julfa) etc.
- b) Sugovtvitelnoe in the original diet + glaciol
The dummy in the dusk - poison fire; Weigh in at once; in the savva galmah - beamless (Shahbuz) and others.
Vermany Vermak - The Gift; усагагмммах - устать; линги йера інт - сидеть; shackles in charms - bruise; (Sarur) and others.
waking up in the sack - crying, screaming; (Nakhichevan)
в) the power of the wine-vodka + glagol
(The Shahbuz) and so on.
ahindy kassmak - strong beat; pay incur a penalty; pay the fee; (Sarur) and others.
- d) in a parenting parenthesis + gluten
dubble droop - throw it down, let it go; urei yhalmah - ghostly mercy; goushin ghonmas - to nourish; Hate Hetmach - Noodle; hawiqi gilmah - to wear; (Shahbuz) and so on.
It would be a performance - to show off; (Julfa), etc.
- b) The noun in the dative case + verb
Ota dushmah - fire poisoning; gacharaga salmag - cast out;
saviya galmah - to be barren (Shahbuz), etc.
veryana vermak - betray; usanagyalmah - tired; ling yera salmah - sit; shirah chahmah - to deceive; (Sharur), etc.
vayeena oturmah - cry, mourn; (Nakhichevan)
- c) noun in the accusative case + verb giragina gatdamag or giragina getdemeg - not to complete (Shahbuz), etc.
Ahdini kasmak - hit hard; alimini vermak - reproach; alimini atayina bukmak - blame; (Sharur), etc.
- g) noun in the genitive case + verb
gulags dushmak - to give up weight, to be fired; ureyi yuhalmah - to come to mercy; gushu gonmah - like; hushu getmah - like; havigi galmah - to pity; (Shahbuz), etc.
algygygy gostarmak - show strength; (Julfa) etc.
fyrt gulkhmah - angry; (Sharur), etc ..
- d) circumstance + verb
uzbasuratdurmakh - stand face to face, yakhush gyalmak - be heavy, dushuh danyshmakh - talk, sayil - bayir danyshma - rave (Shahbuz), sinsiya-sinsiya galmah (Shahbuz, Nakhich) - cry, etc.
eyreti gelmak - to look strange, (Sharur) danga-dang danyshma - boast (Nakhich. Sharur), etc.
caravangy galmakh - confused, hesitate, shovul-shovul bakhmag - wonder (Julfa), etc.
kharza-khadyan danishmah or khataran-pataran danishmah - to wander; ilim-ilim itmak - disappear (Nakhich), etc.
Thus, the noun cases in the first part of the verb phraseological combinations in the Nakhichevan dialects play an important role.
Types of meanings of verbal phraseological units in Nakhchivan dialects.
In the modern Azerbaijani language, types of meaning of phraseological units mean polysemy, homonymism, multivariance, synonymy and antonymy. “Polysemy, synonymy, antonymy reveals the richness of their style, and potential opportunities.” (21, p.126)
The multivariance attracts attention among the kinds of meanings of phraseological units in the Nakhchivan dialect. That is why we consider it more appropriate to analyze the phraseological variants of the Nakhchivan dialect separately.
- Bayramov described the definition of multivariance of the phraseological units as follows: “To express the same meaning in the language, the lexical, lexical-grammatical, grammatical change in the phraseological unit is called phraseological variation, and such compounds that formed on the basis of these changes are called phraseological variants." (15. p. 148)
A.M.Mirzaliyeva explains the variation as follows: “Free phrases pass through various stages during the formation of a phraseological unit. Phraseological variants are formed at this stage”. (16. p. 84)
G.Makhmudova expresses her opinion on the variation of phraseological units in the following way: “The variation of phraseological units, their development has not attracted much attention in Turkology for many years. Today, all linguists unconditionally accept the variation of phraseological units. In our opinion, the variation of phraseological units is revealed after their lexical and grammatical changes”. (17. p. 196, 197)
Although phraseological variants are similar to phraseological synonyms, they have quite a few distinguishing features. The first distinctive feature is that synonyms, although partially, but have a variety of content. The difference between phraseological variants and phraseological synonyms is more obvious in G. Bayramov’s explanation: “Phraseological variants differ from phraseological synonyms as follows: 1) although figurative phraseological variants are similar, but this is not necessary in phraseological synonyms, since phraseological synonyms can be a part of phraseological units that are not figurative; 2) Although it is possible to replace phraseological variants with each other in each case, this aspect is not essential for phraseological synonyms; 3) phraseological synonyms are very different from each other in structure, and in phraseological variants this is very rare ”(15. p. 148 - 149).
In our opinion, the following groups of phraseological variation can be used in the distribution of variants of phraseological units in the Nakhchivan dialects: phonetic variation, lexical variation.
- Phonetic variation
Phonetic variation of phraseological units in the Nakhchivan dialects arise from the change of sounds in one of their parts. The following examples can be given as this phonetic transformation:
girageeny gatdamag (Shahbuz), sellam or sellim burakhmakh (Ordubad)
- Lexical variations
Phraseological units, one of the parts of which is replaced by other words, especially synonyms, create lexical variations:
Dolakh gelmakh (Nakhich.), dutdulu gelmakh (Nakhich.), gef gyalmah (Sharur) - to deceive; shingirikh chikharthma (Ordubad), shur chikhartma (Ordubad, Sharur) - to make noise; kharza-khadyan danishmah, khataran-pataran danishmah (Nakhich.) - chatting; logaz goshmah (Nakhich.Sharur), logaz doshamak (Nakhich.), logaz elamah (Shahbuz) - mock; gahmar chikhmah or gahmar durmah - to stand aside, to protect; alimini vermyak, aliminy eteyin bukmak - blame (Sharur), etc.
Synonymy, formed at the lexical level of the language, can be associated with the phraseology of the language, as well as with the vocabulary. Because phraseological units can be equivalent to each other. “Unlike polysemy and homonymy, synonymy has a special place in the phraseology of the language. The phraseology of the Turkish language Kipchaks and Oguz Turks is rich in synonymous phraseological units. Phraseological synonyms are phraseological units that are identical in meaning, but differ from each other in terms of style (17. p. 208). There is also a difference between lexical synonyms and phraseological synonyms. G. Bayramov explains this difference as follows: “Each phraseological synonym is formed on the basis of a specific image, but this aspect is not suitable for lexical synonyms” (15. p. 163) In our opinion, the most important difference between phrasalological synonyms and lexical synonyms is that phraseological synonyms are more symbolic, and lexical synonyms express concreteness. In addition, phraseological units in the form of a phrase can be equivalent to each other with their components. “... the fundamental difference between phraseological synonymy and lexical synonymy is that lexical synonyms express objective reality. Although lexical synonyms are synonymous with each other separately, phraseological synonyms are synonymous with each other with their components. One of the unique features of phraseological synonyms is polysemy ”(17. page 209)
Results and Discussion
As in our modern literary language, the Nakhchivan dialects also contain synonymy of phraseological units. For example:
kasamat kyasmak - to threaten (Nakhich.), to vermak (Ordubad) - to threaten, force, tovgyalmah (Ordubad) - to threaten, to kyasim satmah (Sharur) - to threaten;
aliminy eteyine bukmak (Sharur) - reproach, aliminy vermyak (Sharur) - reproach;
chul dushmak (Nakhich.) – get tired; zulu getmyah (Shahbuz) – get tired;
“dushgunmakh (Nakhich.) - to weaken; “haprimek” (Sharur) - to be old, etc.
It should also be noted that both lexical synonyms and phraseological synonyms can not be replaced by each other, due to their distinctive meaning. Each lexical or phraseological unit has its own meaning. Let's pay attention to the opinion of T. Efendiyev on this: “... Synonyms are not words that can replace each other. On the contrary, each synonym has a special place of use in speech according to the meaning of the word and style. Each synonym is replaced purposefully (22. p. 32)
“If a verb has an active position among parts of speech, then verbal phraseological units also have such a high level” (17. p. 253)
Since the verb plays an important role in enriching the vocabulary of our language, it also appears in the phraseological fund.
The study of phraseological units in Nakhchivan dialect, their the lexical, semantic, syntactic features, their role within the context of the text was researched on the basis of the materials of Nakhchivan dialects.
Practical importance, results and suggestions
Thhis study conducted on the basis of materials of Nakhchivan dialects can be used in the study of phraseological units in other dialects.
In our opinion, it is possible to study the phraseological units on the basis of the materials of different dialects of Azerbaijan language and prepare a fundamental research on frazeological units in dialectology.
As a result, we can say that the frequency of use of phraseological units in dialectics is not left behind literally. It is clearly visible in the Nakhchivan group's dialect that we have investigated. Study of these phraseological units in dialects is of great importance both in terms of the people’s outlook and the history of their language.
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