Talaat Pasha’s Murder (15.3.1921):A Parody in the Courts of Berlin Belying 'The Miller of Sansoucci Legend of Justice'
Ata Atun Şükrü Server Aya
The European Court of Human Rights’ ECHR 370 Resolution dated 17.12.2013, relating to the case of Mr. Dogu Perincek versus Switzerland, received much publicity worldwide. The attention of 'scholars on international law' has been focused on this case, particularly when in mid- March 2014 Switzerland applied to the Higher Court for revision of the first verdict. The year 1921, like every year between World War I and Adolf Hitler's rise to power, was for Germany one of gloom, Political life had not yet recovered from the shock caused by the overthrow of a form of government deeply rooted in the history of the people. The newly empowered Reichstag was prey to wild party strife, which made the formation of a stable government difficult. The trial of the murder of Talat Pasha proved to be a most shameful comedy, because the killer Tehlarian was found innocent whilst the victim Talat Pasha was found guilty of killing Armenians previously in Turkey. The German Judges gave in to the Armenian and Victor’s pressures. Liman Von Sanders and the German Protestant pastor Dr. Johannes Lepsius deposed in the court as experts. Liman Von Sanders did mentioned anything about the German Ambassador of the era and also him being the Commander in Chief of the Ottoman Army. He did not testify against Talaat but he also did not tell the truth in full extend but a quarter of it only. Accordingly his testimony was against rather than pro. Although an appeal notice was sent to Bronsart Von Shellendorf, he wasn't called as a witness to the court. After the final verdict of the court, he published an article in a newspaper as a reaction to the court's verdict. This paper, based on information excerpted from the non Turkish or non Ottoman formal documents and/or official releases, tries the bring into life what happened actually during the trial and the effect of the heavy and irresistible pressures on the German judges.
Internal Social Conflict within the Characters in Arthur Miller’s All My Sons
Dr.Ashok B. Yawale
Produced by Harold Clurman, Walter Fried and Elia Kazan, and directed by the latter, “All My Sons” began the first of 328 performances at the Coronet Theatre in New York on the evening of January 29, 1947. The play registered its impact in the American theatre. The audience were impressed with the seriousness and intelligence of the work. The play proceeds from the guilt of Joe Keller, uneducated, a small factory owner who sold cracked cylinders’ heads to the Army, Air Force during the period of Second World War. It caused the death of twenty one American pilots. His elder son Lary, a pilot, was also reported missing during the war. The fact that Lary committed suicide because of the sense of shame and outrage over Joe’s crime is withheld till the very end of the play. Joe managed to escape a long prison term by manoeuvring his business partner Steve Deever taking the blame. Joe returned to his business, rebuilt it and by the time the war is over, operating it successfully. When the play opens we are introduced to the leisurely Sunday atmosphere of Keller’s family life. Chris, the younger son wants to marry Ann, the fiancée of his dead brother Lary. Mrs Keller is against their marriage because she refuses to believe that Larry is dead. As the play proceeds, the playwright lifts the veil on the events of the past, leading to an implacable exposure of the main character and the social philosophy that he represents.
Efficacy of Existential Psychotherapy Among Substance Abusers
Existential Psychotherapy perceives clients as living in a human worlds , therefore when he enters in psychotherapeutic session he is not alone , but rather brings with him a whole world . To some client’s meaning emerges with ‘ life and death’ ‘ destiny and freedom’ ‘isolation and connection’. Existential therapists tries to aid individuals to find meaning and cope with their lives. In this paper efficacy of existential psychotherapy has been assessed through Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Findings highlighted the importance of psychological and environmental factors on health. Interventions in existential psychotherapy has thrown light about the understanding of the client’s World , sharing existence in the moment , confronting existential anxiety and gaining responsibility for living and living authentically .
An Evaluation of the Origins, Structure and Features of Nigerian Federalism
Auwalu Musa Ndaliman Alhaji Hassan
The aim of this paper is to examine the origins, structure and features of Nigerian Federalism. The paper traces the origin of Nigerian federalism to colonial insinuations of conquest and divide and rule. Colonialism began with the reorganization and fusion of territories known as amalgamation between 1861 and 1914, an act which was not meant to nurture a federal idea. The finding of this paper reveals that, Nigerian federalism is a child of necessity rather than a colonial intention for the country. The colonial conquest had altered the symbiotic and inter-group relationships that had existed and persisted between the diverse cultures and people. This was replaced by enmity, divisions and hatred with strong sense of sectionalism, ethno-religious, tribal chauvinism and geographical polarizations. Ever since 1914 to date, the structure of Nigerian federalism has dramatically transformed from the level of provinces and regions to the current structure of 36 States and 774 Local Government Areas as well as the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The challenges that are facing Nigerian federalism are; revenue sharing formula among the tiers, state creation, resource control and power sharing. The paper utilizes the secondary source of data and analysis of documents as its methodology. The paper concludes that Nigerians have recognized the significance of the federal system of government and opt for its preservation, because it encourages unity in diversity among the 250 ethnic groups that make up the federation.
The Impact of Training in the Nigerian Police Force: A Study of Zone 9 Umuahia
Chukwuma Edwin Maduka
This study was designed to examine the impact of training in the Nigeria police force at the zonal command, of zone 9 Umuahia, Abia State. It is also aimed at assessing the human resource training and development of the Police force in the five states under the command. To achieve this purpose, some research questions were raised, hypothesis was formulated and a review of related literature was made. The survey research design was adopted in the study. A sample of 125 respondents comprising all the CSPs of police personnel in the zonal command Umuahia of Nigeria was randomly selected from the population of 230 CSPs. Data for the study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Personal interview was also employed to confirm the responses. Finding from the study revealed that the police personnel are not adequately trained and the trained personnel are not deployed to their areas of skills and competency. As a result the ability of the police to protect lives and properties became a challenge to the Nigeria Police. The researcher therefore, recommended amongst others that, all forms of human resource training and development methods such as classroom courses, conferences, workshops and seminars, in- service training and technique assistance should be carried out regularly in order to achieve a healthy work force.
Socio-economic status of beggars in Aligarh district, india
Prof. Jabir Hasan Khan Dr. Menka Shamshad
In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the spatial patterns of beggars’ demographiccharacteristics, literacy, employment, income, household infrastructural facilities, and their socioeconomic status inAligarh district of Uttar Pradesh. This work is based on primary source of data, collected through the field survey in theAligarh district carried out during 2009. The 6 per cent villages (i.e. 70) of the total inhabited villages (1,180) of thedistrict have been selected for rural survey from the stratified random sampling technique and the 6 per cent wardsfrom the all 13 towns of the district were selected for urban survey. Further, the 25 per cent beggars’ households weresurveyed from the each selected village as well as ward of the study area. Altogether, 892 beggars’ households weresurveyed for the present study, in which, the rural survey consisted of 496 households and the urban surveycomprised of 396 households. The regional analysis reveals that beggars of the central blocks of the districtexperienced the low level of socio-economic status, while, the peripheral blocks witnessed high as well as mediumlevel of socio-economic status.
Globalisation is multi dimensional and multifaceted concept. It is a process by which societies, politics, cultures and economies have in some sense integrated. Globalization is economic, political, cultural, ideological and technological. Due to technological advances especially in the economic field it increases the interdependence of the states. The dawn of globalization era from 1990’s has ushered in an era of greater turbulence and lesser stability in the socio-economic and political life of women. The rapid changes in socio-economic and political life of women due to globalization expected to elevate better status and role to women. But in contrast to the expectation it affects rural and urban women both positively and negatively. In this scenario this paper will give an overview of the positive and negative impact of globalization have in store for rural women in India.
This qualitative study examines mothers’ perceptions of their relationship with their children following dyadic therapy through plastic art, and the significance of plastic art as a tool of intervention in dyadic therapy. Ten mothers, who received dyadic therapy through plastic art, participated in the research, along with their children. The findings were divided in two: 1) The characteristics of the mothers’ perception of the relationship with their children changed following the dyadic treatment. The mother perceives the relationship as dependent on separation within the dyad, the maintaining interpersonal communication within the dyad, the abilit to maintain intimacy and closeness, regulation of feelings in the dyad, and understanding the inner world of the child. 2) Plastic art as an instrument of intervention in dyadic treatment. The findings portray that, for the mothers, plastic art is a non-verbal instrument of communication that intensifies intimacy and promotes understanding of the child’s innerworld.