With the shift in global economic, social, demographic, and information technology, the emergence of metropolitan areas not only penetrated the border relations between countries, changed the interaction between central and local governments, restructured the size and style of urban spaces, but also caused a huge transformation in local infrastructures and community structures. The local governments hence have to face challenges in their management in regards to the arising changes and needs. This type of urban formation and development is not only a trend in countries around the globe; it is also an area the Taiwanese governments are actively involved in. With the impact of urbanization, the size of highly functional cities has surpassed core city administrative regions; therefore, this has generated various planning, administrative and policy issues. This study examines the PPPs views on urban development; the research methodology will be designed to focus on qualitative research, firstly undergoing document analysis, studying the progress of sustainable urban development and various issues arising during the development process in Taipei, Taiwan. Secondly, case analysis will be implemented to study the characteristics, current situation and problems in sustainable urban development in Taiwan. With two combined, a concrete and feasible study on sustainable urban development can be integrated and accomplished.
The current era is one of globalization and localization. The core concept of sustainable development is “to provide to everybody everywhere, and at all times, the opportunity to live dignified lives in their respective societies”, which implies proper living standards, social harmony, full participation, and a healthy environment. The neoliberal view of urban development under globalization was a product of the economic restructuring process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, during which the role of city governments changed substantially. The Taipei metropolitan area has the characteristics of a developmental state. Its functions and roles were fixed and closely linked with the overall economic development of Taiwan. Under the pressure of global economic restructuring in the mid-1980s, development shifted toward the neoliberal model and key democratization steps were undertaken at the political level. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of city administration transformation and the implications of neoliberal practice in Taipei’s transition into a neoliberal city within a large-scale urban development project involving the economic and spatial transformation of Taipei. This study aimed to analyze the fulfilment of economic demands for economic development, urban space transformation, and sustainable urban development through the neoliberal urban development and city governance of Taipei. With regard to research methods, this study performed a literature analysis by reviewing studies and theories regarding the effects of sustainable development,
sustainable urban development, and major development projects on urban and rural development and regional equilibrium in order to analyze the individual and overall development issues encountered in governing Taipei. In addition, a case study ware conducted in order to explore city governance research status, as well as the characteristics and issues of city governance development in Taiwan.
The ‘new regionalism’ movement formed in city governance in the 1990s was a product of dialogues between traditional reformists and public choice supporters. New regionalism proposes that both competition and cooperation must be implement when addressing the issue of city governance in order to achieve affective governance of urban areas and establish local strategic partnerships. Such partnerships involve cooperation and collaboration with respect to city governance. In new regionalism, cooperation and collaboration are in a mutually strengthening relationship. Collaboration-guided cooperation facilitates the establishment of collaboration and cooperation. Regardless of the city governance form, three common objectives have pursued :
Urban areas combine formal and informal methods to improve cooperation between local governments. Mutual collaboration and cooperation increases urban areas’ competitiveness within the global economic system.
Negative external issues not controlled due to jurisdictional fragmentation are manage through urban governance institutions.
Newly established city governance institutions provide public finances and tax reduction to promote the development of city centers, reducing the gap between city centers and suburban development and allowing for the more effective development of the regional economy.
Policy guidance and advice on the content of national legislation. Guidance also includes defining which sectors are eligible for PPPs as well as which PPP methods and schemes can be carried out.
Approving or Rejecting proposed PPP projects i.e. playing a gatekeeper role that can occur at any stage of the process i.e. at the initial planning stage or at the final approval stage.
Providing technical support to government organizations at the project identification, evaluation, procurement or contract management phase.
Capacity building i.e. training of public sector officials that are involved in PPP programmers or are interested in the PPP process.
Promote PPPs within the private sector i.e. PPP market development.
|Policy Formulation & Coordination||Quality Control||Technical Assistance||PPP Market Development||Standardisation and Dissemination|
Function of PPP Units across the world
= Function Intended and Effective Function, X = Intended but not Effective Function, O = Intended Function but unclear effectiveness, - = Not an Intended Function
Source: World Bank ( 2007 )
The World Bank ( 2007 ) shows a breakdown (table 1 above) of the different roles that eight different PPP Units play, showing that the majority is involved in the PPP policy and coordination process as well as in providing technical assistance. Less common functions include PPP Market development, PPP contract standardization and quality control functions.
Project error risk: such a risk can occur due to errors by the public partner during the design phase that can lead to low quality services or cost overruns.
Project selection risk: selecting projects that do not provide value for money or the risk of not selecting the best PPP projects for the required outcomes.
Licensing risk: delayed or overly restricted permits or licenses could increase the overall cost of a PPP project.
Demand risk: caused by a service supply that does not match the required or planned levels of demand.
Figure 1 Public and Private Participation classified according to risk and mode of deliver
Source: OECD ( 2010 )
Monteiro ( 2007 ) states that centralized PPP Units can play an important role in risk assessment aimed at fostering efficient risk allocation. If a PPP Unit is given gatekeeping responsibilities (see section above), it can evaluate a PPP in two different phases. It can evaluate any initial feasibility study, assessing the efficiency of the PPP and its overall sustainability; subsequently the PPP Unit can also look at the budgeting requirements of the PPP and decide whether it is a sustainable endeavor to carry out the PPP. Once tenders have been received, the PPP Unit can then assess draft PPP contracts and check that the risk-sharing criteria have been met.
Governmental entities—municipalities, special districts, counties, states, and authorities. Throughout the report we often refer to these entities as municipalities as an all-inclusive term, which mirrors the new language of financial regulation in which all state and local issuances of securities are considered “municipal” and under the supervision of the Municipal Securities Regulatory Board (MSRB). Using PPPs to Facilitate Development of a Real Estate Asset or Community Area Development PPPs have the power to develop or redevelop an area or site, often blighted or underused, within a community. The partnership may be proactively initiated by a municipality to achieve key public objectives, such as downtown revitalization, affordable housing, industrial and commercial development, transit-oriented development, or neighborhood services. The municipality may have public land to include in a project or may be seeking to repurpose a surplus public facility for private use and return it to the tax rolls. A development PPP may also be initiated when a developer envisions a project but cannot realize that vision without the help of the host municipality. The developer may need assistance with site assembly, remediation, extraordinary site preparation, public facilities, overly restrictive zoning, costs of structured parking, rebuilding infrastructure to serve the development or to access water and sewer services, storm water management, or the like in a newly developing area (greenfield). Here is a familiar situation: The downtown business district of a bedroom community is distressed. A few businesses remain, but many buildings host nonretail tenants or have been shuttered. The post office and library generate some foot traffic, but not much. The municipality has revised its zoning regulations to encourage development. A developer sees an opportunity to build a mixed-use building but faces challenges:
The property may been contaminated by operations of a long-shuttered gas station on abutting property.
The developer is struggling to acquire that abutting property, which is essential to the project.
The project requires numerous variances from the municipality’s newly revised zoning standards or a dramatic switch to form-based zoning.
The project requires upgrades to aging public infrastructure, including water and sewer mains and street reconstruction.
As seen from above, a PPP may be broadly or narrowly defined. PPPs can be broadly defined as cooperation relationships established between the public and private sectors to deliver public products or services. As for the narrow definition, PPP can be understood as a general term for a series of development models, including BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer), TOT (Transfer-Operate-Transfer), DFBO (Design-Build-Finance-Operate), etc. The narrow definition of PPP focuses on risk sharing mechanisms and the Value for Money (VFM) Principles in the cooperation process. PPP is not only an innovative financing tool but also represents a radical change in public service delivery models and project management methods. The PPP model can effectively increase the efficiency of supply and quality of service, while presenting high requirements toward the cooperation parties’ capital strength, technology and services, management ability, and financing ability.
According to Rosenau ( 2000 ), the US began to develop PPP in the 1970s. The federal government used partnerships to promote private investments in infrastructure. Partnerships were also a key to the coordination of regional economic development, and their implementation rapidly spread to other countries. PPPs refer to cooperative relationships established between the government, private enterprises, and nonprofit organizations in order to fulfil policy functions. Although the BOT method have been applied in Taiwan to promote civil participation in public investments, successful overseas experiences with PFI implementation have also drawn the attention of legislative departments and the Executive Yuan Public Construction Commission and been determined as a promotion strategy for the future.
Summary: In summary, PPP is an abbreviation of ‘public-private partnership.’ The UK was the pioneer of general partnership, and in 1992, the British government led by John Major became the first to introduce a PPP project. The PPP model refers to a model of cooperation between public sector (government) and private enterprises in the field of public construction. The appropriate and effective implementation of PPPs can stimulate infrastructure development and promote and maintain economic growth. In addition to the commonly used BOT (construction and operation by the private sector followed by transfer of proprietary rights to the government after expiration), PPP models include BTO (Build-Operate-Transfer; construction and operation by private sector; the government receives the proprietary right at no charge or for a fee but entrusts operation to the private sector), OT (Operate-Transfer; construction by the government and operation entrusted to the private sector; the management right is transferred to the government after expiration), and BOO (the government designates a construction project and the private sector invests in construction and possesses the proprietary right). In BOT, the government grants the rights for an infrastructure project or facility to a private enterprise via a concession agreement. After investment-based construction of the public building or facility is completed, it is operated and maintained by the private enterprise. After the concession term expires, the private enterprise transfers the facility and assets to the government at no charge for operation and management. PPPs apart from financial considerations, another characteristic of the BOT model is the principle of risk sharing between public and private sectors. Essentially, the BOT model is a risk-sharing partnership.
This study used examines the issues of PPPs views on urban development; the research methodology with our effort, we hope to designed to focus on qualitative research, firstly undergoing document analysis, studying the progress of sustainable urban development and various issues arising during the development process in Taipei, Taiwan. Secondly, case analysis with our effort, we hope to implement to study the characteristics, current situation and problems in sustainable urban development in Taipei, Taiwan. With two combined, a concrete and feasible study on sustainable urban development can be integrated and accomplished.
REGIONAL BACKGROUND AND IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY
City Development Trends
With the rise of environmental awareness in the 1990s, planning systems increasingly attached more importance to the overall interactions between human, resources, the environment, and development. Under the influence of the sustainable development concept and the prerequisites of limited natural resources and unlimited human wants and needs, plans should include an appropriate level of control over the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve sustainable development. Moreover, due to global trends, countries no longer pursue national and private economic profits blindly. The world economy has entered the resource integration phase involving international cooperation and regional development. With regard to performance enhancement, both the public and private sectors have realized that the establishment of a stable partnership relationship can improve the results of environmental and business management and construction development. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen civil participation and PPPs.
Many examples of cities worldwide indicate changes in city regeneration trends. The focus has switched from a large-scale base development plan to overall city revitalization, from environmental reconstruction to redevelopment and physical adjustment of the entire area, and from purely private development or governmental construction to diverse development models and partnership relations.
Regional Background and Implications of this Study
The regional background in this study was the metropolitan area of Taipei, the leading example of a metropolitan area in Taiwan. Cultivation of the land began over 300 years ago. Today, Taipei is a capital city and center of Chinese culture. Taipei has urban traits that many European and American cities lack and admire, such as convenience and diversity due to mixed land use, small business groups, multi-national integration, etc. proposed that a sustainable city must consider its environment and resource base; a sustainable city with a unique style is developed based on its role in the overall environment. A sustainable Taipei must be able to comprehensively develop nature conservation, balance economic development and quality of life and integrate natural and human environments. The construction and operation of a city environment by following various design guidelines and approval procedures has become an inevitable trend.
CASE STUDY AND PRACTICAL ARGUMENTS
Summary of Basic Urban Development Plan under the Taipei Bus Station BOT Project
Taipei has long been the core development city of Taiwan. Based on the objectives listed in the White Paper issued by the Taipei City Government, “Outlook on an Enjoyable and Livable Ecological Capital,” urban space development in Taipei will be oriented toward the provision of human space. In addition to being Taiwan’s intercity gateway, the Taipei Main Station special zone will be upgraded to an international gateway after Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Main Station are linked via its Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system.
Consideration is given to the developmental points of the Taipei Main Station special-use zone, integration of the airport MRT station into the special-use zone, the C1 and D1 joint development buildings, and the construction of the airport underground terminal station.
Site environment and superior position plan : the Taipei Main Station special-use zone includes the eastern part of Huanhe South Road, the southern part of Huayin Street (including the Turn of nine precincts), the northern part of Zhongxiao Road, and the western part of Zhongshan North Road. The area circle includes the Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial House and parks No.1 ( Taipei Main Station ), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, C1, D1, E1, E2, and 13. It is one of the first areas to be developed in Taipei and contains rich historical and cultural resources. After the implementation of the railway, underground project, the Urban Planning Committee, Ministry of Interior, approved the Taipei Main Station special-use zone urban planning project in 1990. The most important construction project among them is the “Central Station and Central Park Overall Planning and Design Project” that involves the entire area and will determine urban development in the next 10 years. 1. Site environment and superior position plan : the Taipei Main Station special-use zone includes the eastern part of Huanhe South Road, the southern part of Huayin Street (including the Turn of nine precincts), the northern part of Zhongxiao Road, and the western part of Zhongshan North Road. The area circle includes the Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial House and parks No.1 ( Taipei Main Station ), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, C1, D1, E1, E2, and 13. It is one of the first areas to be developed in Taipei and contains rich historical and cultural resources. After the implementation of the railway, underground project, the Urban Planning Committee, Ministry of Interior, approved the Taipei Main Station special-use zone urban planning project in 1990. The most important construction project among them is the “Central Station and Central Park Overall Planning and Design Project” that involves the entire area and will determine urban development in the next 10 years.
The Taipei Main Station special-use zone was one of the first areas to be developed in Taipei: Earlier, no developments could be performed in the area due to railways. City activities were split by railroads into the station front and station back. However, after the implementation of the railway underground project and the release of a large number of new plots, the zone was seen as the “eternal” construction site of Taipei due to shifts in city development focus and the lack of agreement between governmental agencies and landlords with regard to the area’s development, and public lands were left idle. This project combines Taipei’s past with its future opportunities. 2. The Taipei Main Station special-use zone was one of the first areas to be developed in Taipei: Earlier, no developments could be performed in the area due to railways. City activities were split by railroads into the station front and station back. However, after the implementation of the railway underground project and the release of a large number of new plots, the zone was seen as the “eternal” construction site of Taipei due to shifts in city development focus and the lack of agreement between governmental agencies and landlords with regard to the area’s development, and public lands were left idle. This project combines Taipei’s past with its future opportunities.
The following are related key issues and strategies: Create a public green system and maintain the diversity of urban activities: With the industrial advances in Taiwan and its national urbanization, Taipei has been experiencing an inflow of people. Thus, diverse transportation transfers were organized to ensure concentrated use density. A 1.6-kilometer long area between Tamsui River in the west and Zhongshan North Road in the east is divided into five zones by south-north roads, including, from west to east, the Recreation Zone, Convention Zone, Memory Zone, New Gate Zone, and TMS Zone. The arrangement of the five zones is determined by the axes of the Linear Forest and Taipei Skyway. Figure 2 shows the main spatial framework and main pedestrian paths. Some linear parks connect S1 and D1 streets with the surrounding park system, strengthening the street axis system and expanding the human landscape system from east to west and from south to north within the development area. As such, trends for sustainable city development and planning strategies for an ecosystem are formed. 3. The following are related key issues and strategies: Create a public green system and maintain the diversity of urban activities: With the industrial advances in Taiwan and its national urbanization, Taipei has been experiencing an inflow of people. Thus, diverse transportation transfers were organized to ensure concentrated use density. A 1.6-kilometer long area between Tamsui River in the west and Zhongshan North Road in the east is divided into five zones by south-north roads, including, from west to east, the Recreation Zone, Convention Zone, Memory Zone, New Gate Zone, and TMS Zone. The arrangement of the five zones is determined by the axes of the Linear Forest and Taipei Skyway. Figure 2 shows the main spatial framework and main pedestrian paths. Some linear parks connect S1 and D1 streets with the surrounding park system, strengthening the street axis system and expanding the human landscape system from east to west and from south to north within the development area. As such, trends for sustainable city development and planning strategies for an ecosystem are formed.
At the North Gate Plaza opening ceremony held on August 3, 2017, Taipei mayor Ko Wen-je announced the completion of the West Gate plan and recovery of the historical value of the North Gate. It was emphasized that, while Paris has the Arc de Triumphed, Taipei has North Gate. North Gate may become a new landmark of Taipei and a symbol of Taiwan’s national gate. The slogan “Changing Taiwan, starting with the capital; changing Taipei, starting with its culture” was declared, with North Gate restoration being the starting point of the restoration of forgotten human culture, history, and glory.
Figure 2 The five zones of the Taipei Main Station special use zone and the city’s green axis
use zone and the city’s green axis
Civil participation is encouraged in public works related to the Taipei Main Station special-use zone in order to strengthen the functions of Taipei’s long-distance buses, MRT system, and railway transportation. As such, the Taipei Main Station special-use zone were formed into the ‘national gateway’ and ‘heart of Taipei,’ marking a starting point in Taipei’s development and construction based on internationalization, humanization, and sustainability.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 3 Taipei The national gate of the country program - Central Station, Central Park
Figure 4 The national gate of the country program - Central Station, Central Park
Figure 5 Taipei Main Station zone and the city’s urban development
Taipei City urban sustainable development planning Strategies, straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles characterize the city. The city is built on a square grid configuration; however, these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft.) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometers per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally. Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.
Tamsui River waterfront redevelopment projects
Taipei City possesses rich river resources, meaning we have great potential in developing an amazing waterfront. However, in its early days, when the city urbanized rapidly, embankments were built along the rivers, which prevented the waterfront from becoming an integral part of Taipei city life. To rectify the situation, the city has initiated projects to redefine, reconnect and reinvent the relationships between city life and the waterfront. The Tamsui River waterfront redevelopment projects aim to implement Taipei’s waterfront urban design guideline and to build a ‘sky garden’ overpass to attract citizens to the waterfront. The waterfront redevelopment projects will establish a new relationship between the waterfront and the city. The total length of this proposed overpass is 4 km and construction cost is estimated at $21.2 million USD.
Taipei Hiking Trail System
Hills and mountainous areas constitute over half of Taipei City’s total land area. In order to provide a user-friendlier environment for hikers and mountain climbers, the Department of Urban Development in 2004 initiated a project to overhaul the hiking trail signage system, and to integrate the public transportation system and hiking trails that form a comprehensive “Taipei Hiking Trail System.” In providing a readily accessible environment through integrating the hiking trails and classifying the trail grades, urban residents now find nature a lot more accessible. In 2006 and 2007, the City Government consolidated the basic infrastructure and continued to issue publications to promote and encourage the public’s participation in mountain climbing and hiking as a leisure activity.
The “Green Net”
The “Green Network” project was designated by the Taipei City Government to create a green urban environment and a more harmonious city landscape by connecting its sidewalks, open spaces, green areas and public spaces such as institutions and schools. Through the systematic integration of a green network consisting of nodes, lines and areas, the Government aims to create a verdant and lush urban landscape. After the completion of the greening improvement master plan for Civic Boulevard, the strategic area improvement design has been carried out. In 2008, major construction of improvement included sidewalk of Taipei Municipal Longan Elementary School, and Taipei Municipal Zhongshan Girls’ Senior High School, and the area surrounds Taipei Municipal First Funeral Home.
With the practice of “Rules of Architecture Technology—Regulations on the Green Building”, application of constructing new buildings in Taipei City has to follow the regulations to be examined and approved before it could be built. Starting from July 1, 2003, any public building with a construction budget of NT$50,000,000 and above needs to submit a “certificate of a green building candidate” when applying for the license of construction. The most representative cases of green buildings in 2007 include Shipai Branch Library and Beitou Branch Library of the City Library.
Living Environment-Urban Renewal
In 2007, the Department of Urban Development continued to promote urban renewal of certain areas, such as the public land of Huaguang Community in the east of Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall and the area near Guaisui Street of Datung District. Moreover, concerning the re-construction of the area on the right bank of Tamsui River, the renovation of the areas around the MRT stations, the revival of business in the old region of Wanhua District, and the reuse of greater areas of public land, the Department came up with concrete projects of urban renewal and revised land use plan in specific area. The Department also proposed to continue promoting urban renewal and developing strategies to attract businesses investment that will speed up the processes of renewal.
Revitalizing Business Development
In order to raise the competitiveness of business circles, attract shoppers, and at the same time combine traditional businesses with the renovation of business circles, in 2007, the Taipei City Government sponsored a series of revitalizing plans in the business circles of the old districts to change the shopping environment and create local features. Through assisting the commercial areas, revitalizing community industry, and maintaining and transforming urban space, the City Government intend to combine culture, business, and community efforts to revitalize local economy and to sustain the cultural heritage.
Encouraging the Private Sector in Advancing Renewal
With the change of times and the community development, some old buildings that are either low or small and a majority of apartment buildings of four or five stories are no longer suitable for the development of the city or fulfill the demand of living quality by the citizens. Some unlivable buildings, such as those that had been damaged in disasters, those built with a high level of chlorine (the so-called “houses of sea sand”), and those built with radiated steels, are listed as the top targets for demolition in the Plan of Urban Renewal by the Taipei City Government. In order to encourage owners to demolish these buildings and rebuild on their own, the city government continued to review and simplify related regulations on urban renewal of Taipei City and, at the same time, compensate the cost on preparation, operation, construction and maintenance of private property with the Fund of Urban Renewal. These are to effectively promote the projects of reconstruction and renewal and to revamp Taipei into a livable city.
“Face off” the City: A Colorful Make-up Movement
The City Government encourages private urban renewal projects and improvement by publicly awarding construction of buildings that coordinate with existing environments and innovative ideas. These buildings are introduced in publication for propaganda in order to raise the consciousness of the citizens about the exteriors of buildings and the quality of environment so that they can be inspired to improve their own environment through renovation or regular maintenance. In 2007, there were 42 applications for the “Face-Off Award of Taipei City”. After careful evaluation, “Manlemen”, an old brick building on Zhongshan North Road, was selected as the most representative case of renovation and given the “Award of Best Renovation/Maintenance for Private Buildings”. “Healing Garden” was given the “First Prize for Private Open Space” for its courtyard that brings relief through the combination of landscape, sounds, fragrant smells, and concrete installment. The Museum of Drinking Water was given the “Award of Best Renovation/Maintenance for Public Buildings” for its classic exterior that revealed a historical facet after careful renovation for ancient relics. The “Golden Award for Public Open Space” was given to both Museum of Contemporary Art of Taipei and “The Plum Garden” in No. 1 Park of Beitou for their innovative designs that coordinated with the old buildings. “Taipei Golden Chain Amusement Center” was awarded in the category of “Best Plan and Design” as it showed the urban ecology with the combination of water landscape and gardens.
In creating a better life for its citizens and preserving a sustainable ecological environment for the generations to come, the Taipei City Government must continue to preserve its healthy and vibrant natural environment, while at the same time improving its investment environment. Government leaders are poised to display Taipei City as one of the most prominent urban centers in the world through effective marketing strategies. Promoting the “Golden Twin Cities” -the Danshui River Manhattan Plan. The Taipei City Government sincerely invites all residents to work together to make Taipei an even more highly competitive center, one whose advanced investment environment and high standard of living has made Taipei an international city that is also a great place to live, work and enjoy life.
In the future, the city hopes cooperation between the eight cities and counties of northern Taiwan will enable residents of the region to combine resources and expand their living area. Moreover, faced with environmental change and global warming, the city will continue with the Green Infrastructure Master Plan of Taipei Metropolis. The plan includes establishing green nodes and strips in the city along with promoting sustainable, low-carbon ecological communities and ecological engineering practices. One area of special concern for the plan is rivers. The city is dedicated to becoming more waterfront accessible by improving the ecological environment around its waterfronts. The goal of these efforts is to achieve a balance between manmade and natural environments, in turn forming an ecological city. Promoting the “Golden Twin Cities” -the Danshui River Manhattan Plan.
Regards to the mission of public housing, the government promotes the concept of housing from “habitat” to “living environment” as a whole. We not only provide rent subsidies and maintenance service for housing projects, but also quality landscape and improving open space. Meanwhile, universal design is considered and applied to interior of the housing units. All these are with the purpose of providing citizens a secured comfortable neighborhood. The government commits to increase in public housing supply and introduces mechanism of property management into the operation, so that the citizens may be content with their living and working.
Based on guidelines in Taipei Mayor Policy White Paper and the desire of city residents for a complete development plan, the Taipei Department of Urban Development plans to focus on four main themes: 1. achieving sustainable urban development, 2. building a beautiful waterfront city, 3. urban renewal to attract industry, and 4. innovative and efficient development. It will take practical steps to achieve each of these goals.
Sustainable Urban Development Sustainable development is a target that cities around the world are striving for, a goal that will affect not only environmental quality across the globe but also each of the cities’ competitiveness. As a member of the global community, Taipei will uphold the principle of sustainable development to protect the ecology that is already part of the city. It will institute low-carbon, energy-saving policies and encourage entry by green industry, making life in the city more ecologically friendly.1. Sustainable Urban Development Sustainable development is a target that cities around the world are striving for, a goal that will affect not only environmental quality across the globe but also each of the cities’ competitiveness. As a member of the global community, Taipei will uphold the principle of sustainable development to protect the ecology that is already part of the city. It will institute low-carbon, energy-saving policies and encourage entry by green industry, making life in the city more ecologically friendly.
Building a Beautiful Waterfront City Taipei’s environmental advantages include wind, water, mountains and forests. Finding a way to use each of the city’s natural resources to create a beautiful, waterfront-based city is a hope and challenge for the mayor and each of the city’s residents. The Department of Urban Development will continue working to improve the city’s harbors and waterfront park entryway paths while promoting renewal plans in waterfront areas. Clear design plans will encourage large-scale private investment, adding impetus to enhancing the waterfront landscape.2. Building a Beautiful Waterfront City Taipei’s environmental advantages include wind, water, mountains and forests. Finding a way to use each of the city’s natural resources to create a beautiful, waterfront-based city is a hope and challenge for the mayor and each of the city’s residents. The Department of Urban Development will continue working to improve the city’s harbors and waterfront park entryway paths while promoting renewal plans in waterfront areas. Clear design plans will encourage large-scale private investment, adding impetus to enhancing the waterfront landscape.
Urban Renewal to Attract Industry Rapid change is occurring in political, economic, and industrial environments, meaning that some of Taipei’s development plans and space usage no longer meet advanced global trends or development needs. Re-planning and redevelopment are necessary. Efforts the city is undertaking include renovating, rebuilding and maintaining older buildings, along with realizing mass transit development plans. These improvements will meet industrial development needs. Policies such as designating renewal zones, shifting capacity, and reviewing zoning ordinances will lead to an increase in new industry and make renewal more efficient, while also improving the city’s environment and making it more competitive. Other efforts include establishing urban regeneration stations, which turn idle spaces in old buildings into vessels for people to express creativity and to learn, and fostering interaction with international experts and industrial figures. (These various undertakings have resulted in considerable progress and can serve as a foundation for future efforts at building a livable, sustainable urban environment.)3. Urban Renewal to Attract Industry Rapid change is occurring in political, economic, and industrial environments, meaning that some of Taipei’s development plans and space usage no longer meet advanced global trends or development needs. Re-planning and redevelopment are necessary. Efforts the city is undertaking include renovating, rebuilding and maintaining older buildings, along with realizing mass transit development plans. These improvements will meet industrial development needs. Policies such as designating renewal zones, shifting capacity, and reviewing zoning ordinances will lead to an increase in new industry and make renewal more efficient, while also improving the city’s environment and making it more competitive. Other efforts include establishing urban regeneration stations, which turn idle spaces in old buildings into vessels for people to express creativity and to learn, and fostering interaction with international experts and industrial figures. (These various undertakings have resulted in considerable progress and can serve as a foundation for future efforts at building a livable, sustainable urban environment.)
Innovative and Efficient Execution An important part of studying global industrial development in recent years has been looking at how government agencies conduct urban development. Moreover, how efficiently the agencies carry out their policies is closely related to people’s rights and benefits. The Department of Urban Development will use its development plans and organizational structure as a foundation to make life easier for city residents and realize development ideas in an innovative way. In addition, the department will review its ideas for urban planning, design and renewal along with its building management system. It will put together timetables and management plans, establish public reviewing authority limits, formulate clear deliberation standards and take advantage of private expertise. To achieve its goal of effective management, it will speed up the process for obtaining certification to promote comprehensive development.4. Innovative and Efficient Execution An important part of studying global industrial development in recent years has been looking at how government agencies conduct urban development. Moreover, how efficiently the agencies carry out their policies is closely related to people’s rights and benefits. The Department of Urban Development will use its development plans and organizational structure as a foundation to make life easier for city residents and realize development ideas in an innovative way. In addition, the department will review its ideas for urban planning, design and renewal along with its building management system. It will put together timetables and management plans, establish public reviewing authority limits, formulate clear deliberation standards and take advantage of private expertise. To achieve its goal of effective management, it will speed up the process for obtaining certification to promote comprehensive development.
By concentrating on the four themes described above, the Department of Urban Development will continue working to build a livable, sustainable urban environment.
After more than a century of development, Taipei has become the political, economic and cultural capital of Taiwan. Its charm is evident everywhere you turn, and it has more cultural highlights than any other Chinese city in the world. Out of the city’s 271.8 square kilometers, 129.93 have been designated as urban development zones, covering 47.8 percent of the city. The remaining 141.87 square kilometers, or 52.2 percent, consist of agricultural areas, protected land, scenic landscapes, and rivers. By the end of April 2011, the city’s population stood at 2,630,285 people, with population growth gradually stabilizing.
Urban Development Goals and Strategies the Taipei Department of Urban Development strives for a balance between people, the city, and nature while working toward economic development, social harmony, and ecological equilibrium. With these ends in mind, the department’s outlook for urban development includes turning Taipei into a sustainable, ecological city that is forward-looking, enjoyable, livable, and safe. It also wants to ensure Taipei has strong cultural, ecological, and IT characteristics. In the living environment, the department plans to infuse cultural characteristics, while it wants manufacturing to be more high-tech and the ecological environment to include more water. By achieving these goals, the department can turn Taipei into a prosperous and friendly international city.
When formulating plans, the department considers Taipei Mayor Hau Lung-bin’s policy white paper, including its 30-to-50-year urban development plans for promoting sustainable development and building a healthy, livable city. Based on Taipei’s characteristics and needs, the department chose six themes suited to making an ecological city, including tree, aqua, infrastructure, people, energy, and intelligent. It has a development strategy separated into stages and short-, mid- and long-term plans. With 2040 set as the target year for building a sustainable, ecological city, the department will continue working to foster a living environment that is healthier and better integrated with natural water resources.
Another part of the department’s efforts is the northern Taiwan regional cooperation pact. Covering the eight counties and cities of North Taiwan, the pact covers plans related to land, industry, society, and resources, including relaxation and recreation, transportation and transport, industrial development, environmental resources, fire protection and security, culture and education, health and welfare, and issues related to aboriginals, Hakka groups and recent immigrants. The pact has produced numerous benefits. To respond to flooding problems caused by climate change, Hsinchu, Taoyuan, Keelung, New Taipei, and Taipei have conducted comprehensive research on urban development and flood control in the Danshui River Basin area. The research objective is to create plans for a sustainable environment and urban planning ordinances.
When considering Taipei is overall planning, this department adheres to the urban development ideas of making the manufacturing environment more international, the living environment more personable, and the ecological environment more sustainable. It invites foreign experts to join symposiums and workshops, enhancing communication and making the city more cosmopolitan. Through its design for all concept, the department makes open spaces and public residences handicap accessible. Moreover, steps it takes to protect the environment include extensive planting of trees and other greenery. The result is an ecological Taipei that exists in harmony with nature.
Urban Regeneration and Renewal Apart from improving the living environment and the city’s competitiveness, the key to urban development this year is launching urban regeneration stations, or URS. The purpose of URS is to bring a new discourse to the city along with action and sustainability strategies. In addition, as the city turns into an aged society, the Department of Urban Development is working on a plan to expand assistance for urban renewal in older buildings geared toward middle to low income earners. The plan objective includes encouraging older communities to save energy, reduce carbon emissions, and become more ecological and affable, thereby improving the city’s appearance and raising living standards. Taipei’s development outlook depends on environmental protection, working toward sustainable usage of environmental resources, and using economic development to build a technological, smart economy with efficient production standards. The final goal is to achieve a community that is sustainable, safe, fair and just, along with a comprehensive urban regeneration strategy.
Promoting the “Golden Twin Cities” -the Danshui River Manhattan Plan .
Plan Origin1. Plan Origin
Plan Content2. Plan Content
Achievements and Benefits3. Achievements and Benefits
The Danshui River lies along some of the earliest developed portions of Taipei. To develop the city’s riverside and advance urban renewal, the city government is promoting its Danshui River Manhattan Plan. The plan includes using new ideas for urban development along the Danshui River. It calls for a review of urban planning in areas within 1 kilometer of the river, waterfront renewal, and building a scenic overpass. Planning is underway for the overpass and investigation research has begun on waterfront renewal projects.
A review is taking place in administrative districts along the Danshui River (including Shilin, Datong, Wanhua, Zhongzheng, and Wenshan). Over the short-term, the city will give precedence to model plans on public land and conduct assessments of public land in riverfront areas that are lying idle, are rarely used, or are in urgent need of renovation (for example, the Luoyang Parking Lot, the Huannan Market, Jizhou Temple, and the Old Sanzong Hospital Base). The city will also evaluate land used by schools along the Danshui River to see if it can be combined with other projects and used more effectively. Over the mid- to long-term, the city will advise private owners of land on how they join the renewal process. The goal is build a complete waterfront renewal development mechanism.
Taipei plans to use the Danshui River Manhattan Plan to guide renewal projects in areas along the riverfront. These projects will create beautiful river scenery and a high-quality waterfront living environment. By carrying out its Danshui riverfront renewal policy, the city government will turn Taipei into a city with a strong river culture.
A Vigorous Taipei -- Promoting Innovation and Internationalism
Creating an Innovative City -- The Taipei Urban Regeneration Station Plan
Urban regeneration is more than just the dismantling and reconstruction of the city setting, improving the environment and landscape, and solving problems. It is also reorganizing and restructuring new and old resources in the city along with establishing a basis for the city’s future development. This process provides the unity and competitiveness needed to advance.
In the past, urban renewal focused on transforming buildings while improving and giving new life to old urban environments. Nevertheless, globalization has brought added competition from other cities and the new economy, meaning Taipei urgently needs a new urban blueprint.
To develop a new framework in a rigid city, it is necessary to establish seeds to serve as starting points. We call these urban regeneration stations, or URS. These stations are part of an urban regeneration strategy that focuses on duty, openness, and community.
URS is a homonym for the word “yours.” It is for everyone, and its main framework body and arrangements functions are not created defined in advance.
URS is a platform, a network, and a movement. It is a quiet revolution initiated by urban regeneration departments. Each URS is named by its house number and is a space for workstations, neighborhood activities, information exchange, social interactions, exhibitions, and experimental actions, while also serving as a rest area for people moving around the city. Anyone who uses the space applies his or her own purpose to it.
URS acts as an intermediary between providing space and taking action. It is like an anchor, guiding current and future urban regeneration efforts. URS will become a network for change and a basis to form a creative milieu for generating new ideas, while also sparking a boundary-less soft urbanism (the interaction between urbanism and the space of mass media and communication networks).
Three Main Characteristics
Open stages for discourse Platform for public discourse
Experimental urban action
An integrated urban network
Four Main Policy Goals
Initiate Local Regeneration URS is a kind of active application, available before the city promotes an urban development policy, and it is an integrated platform. Through task-based, mobile stations, URS offers action based creativity to spark waves of urban regeneration.
Introduce Creative Energy Creative people gather at the stations, which makes them a setting for creative strength. The city provides resources, facilities, and a platform, giving participants a chance to come up with limitless ideas for urban regeneration.
Invigorating Community Networks URS is effective at forming community and city networks because it acts as a connecting force. It is a gathering point that is both tangible and abstract.
A Sustainable Base for Local Development By integrating local networks and inducing creativity, URS incites local development and regeneration.
Through activities outside the norm, it acts as a force for local development. Meanwhile, a creative platform offers practical, open spaces to foster sustainable development.
Creativity and cultural innovation are added to old, idle buildings that serve as a basis for URS. These buildings come from public and private sources.
Public Buildings: People can draft short-, mid- and long-term plans for reusing public buildings (state and city owned). By letting people use the buildings on a short-term basis for regeneration, cultural, and creative purposes, the city invigorates the renewal process. In the first stage, it offered four bases.
Private Buildings: Before owners renew or renovate idle private property, the space can be reused as a base for creativity, beautification, and stimulation. Private organizations are encouraged to make proposals for creative ways to use the space.
After examination of possible subsidies and activity fees, organizations considered capable of utilizing the low-use space as a base for creative management can begin searching for possible places to conduct regeneration or transformation projects. The space can then become a tool for generating pockets of renewal in the community.
The URS plan uses urban creativity as a guide to enhance the city’s competitiveness through local improvements. Each station serves as a foundation for Taipei’s growth and progress. The plan is different from other mechanisms that focus on hard infrastructure and buildings. Instead, it develops soft innovation. We hope that by creating these stations, modern urbanites can have an open space to meet and share ideas. Through this process, the stations will instill in people a sense of belonging to their community.
Promote open, community-based urban regeneration
Spark a cultural and creative neighborhood lifestyle
Build the united growth network needed in an innovative city
Enhance identification with the city and add aesthetic value
Make wandering around the city seem like a style filled journey
Strengthen the city’s soft urbanism lifestyle
The Vision Guiding a PPP
Key stakeholders, including elected officials, the developer, and neighbors, as well as civic, philanthropic, and business leadership, must subscribe to it. The developer, “community,” and government must have a common vision and compatible goals. It must be an informed vision, and appropriate public participation is crucial in shaping, validating, and supporting that shared vision. Successful public/private projects fuse market potential, physical reality, and community goals.
Creating the Vision
The process of developing a shared vision is far more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming than either private developers or many public officials would like. The vision can be the product of a community planning or visioning process; a developer-generated vision; or a combination of both: that is, a government vision or master plan, shaped and refined with community input, and implemented by a developer. Understanding the difference between a vision plan and a master plan is important. A master plan is a more detailed plan, which is prescriptive about uses, urban design, and development regulations, such as height, density, and the like. A vision plan speaks more broadly to uses, character, and scale of an area. Vision plans are typically more helpful than prescriptive master plans. The former afford the developer the flexibility to shape the project based on the reality of the market. Informed Vision An informed vision is one that is based on solid market analysis, planning, and business principles and relates to historical trends and a realistic projection of future possibilities. It is not based on the whim or unrealistic expectations of a political leader or constituent group. The vision may be created by a small group of business or civic leaders or enlightened government officials, working with professional planners, architects, and economists. That vision is then ready to be explained, shared, and shaped with constituent groups and stakeholders. Alternatively, an increasing number of examples of stakeholder-engaging processes, properly informed by the work of a team of experts, result in “fact-based” visions with strong community support. Promoting the “Golden Twin Cities” -the Danshui River Manhattan Plan.
As an example, in Miami Beach’s South Beach in the 1980s, the vision that guided its remarkable transformation was first created and refined by a small group of preservationists, planners, architects, entrepreneurial new investors, and cultural innovators. That vision was subscribed to by new residents and investors and ultimately by longtime residents and businesses. Though never formally adopted by the city government, that vision guided investments in public infrastructure, the arts, and catalytic PPP projects such as the Loews Miami Beach Hotel. In practice, although we may talk about “PPP” or “P3,” public/private projects have more key participants, as shown in the sidebar “Why P5s Matter.” Public Participation An integral part of creating a shared vision is public participation and engagement. Community outreach, public presentations, and workshops with neighbors and constituent groups are often required before government considers and approves PPP projects. Public participation can be used both to help shape a shared vision and to educate stakeholders and interested parties, to dispel myths and present facts supporting the proposed project. This early spadework prevents opposition down the road. A delicate balance also exists between accommodating public concerns and ideas and being too accommodating. Often, local knowledge received from the public outreach process helps project design, function, and implementation. However, some ideas offered by constituent groups, neighbors, and government are impractical, unreasonable, and contrary to the project’s vision. Those ideas must be politely, but firmly, rejected. A number of techniques have been developed and are widely used to help create a shared vision and build support for ideas gestated from business, developer, or governmental initiatives, such as the following:
Stakeholder steering committees;
Community planning processes with multiple workshops;
Joint committees and task forces; and
Joint commission reviews.
The shared vision should ultimately have official support from the governmental entities with authority to facilitate its execution, whether through entitlements, infrastructure investment, financial assistance, or public financing. As a practical matter, the broad official support for a project and the vision behind it will help it proceed through the often extended period of implementation and multiple governmental administrations (and sometimes successive or multiple developers). In addition, formal approval helps establish the public purpose being served. Public Purpose Public purpose is both a legal requirement and the raison d’être for a PPP project. Most public actions in support of a PPP project, especially where government is making a direct financial contribution or providing use of public lands or facilities require meeting a legal test that the public investment serve a public purpose.
Public purpose does not mean that the local government providing the incentives must be the sole beneficiary of those incentives. The private party receiving the incentives can also directly benefit. Public purpose—as opposed to public use—can include economic development, job creation, preservation or creation of open space, and many other acts broadly contributing to the “health, safety, and general welfare” of the community. These acts are often outlined in specifically required tests and provided for in state law.
Continuum of Public Sector Support
The extent and nature of public support can vary greatly from project to project. At one end of the continuum is heavy financial participation, which can include direct investment of public funds, favorable lease or conveyance of public lands, and investment in infrastructure. At the other end of the continuum, direct public investment can be minimal, but the project could be facilitated through more liberal and flexible development standards, expedited processes, and conveyance at market rate of public property. These issues are discussed in more detail in the next section. In sum, engagement among the public sector, private developers, and civic, community, philanthropic, and business interests will help form a compelling and enduring shared vision that integrates community goals, physical capacity, and economic feasibility, as illustrated Elements of a Successful Project “Economic Feasibility, Community Goals, Site Capacity and Successful Project〝. This shared vision may be used to build support and champions for visions emerging from any one of those sectors. Obtaining official sanction and establishing the legal public purpose pave the way for an enduring vision for an area or a project that can then receive the support of various public powers and funds as well as survive the vicissitudes of both economic cycles and political change.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
This study employed a neoliberalism-centered urban development approach and aimed to fulfil the economic demand for economic development and urban space transformation through the neoliberal urban development and city governance of Taipei. The following conclusions were made: 1. the basic goal of global city competitiveness of Taipei was promoted by implementing ‘qlubarnization,’ a spatial development strategy dependent on intercalary abilities. 2.Taipei is located in the hub of Asia, linking mainland China and Taiwan, facing the world, peaceful and stable, rich and diverse in culture, such that adopting the “hybrid or mixed-use development model" will allow "The national gate of the country program - Central Station, Central Park" to become an international city brand. 3. Taking the “Taipei Main Station Turn of nine precincts specific land development projects” as a key success indicator, the government took privatization or PPP into consideration, loosened the monopoly on urban infrastructure, created infrastructure services and a maintenance market, positioned the city as a “supranational” entity in terms of capital flow, and sought a coherent land policy. Promoting the “Golden Twin Cities” -the Danshui River Manhattan Plan.
This study explored the system of space governance only from the perspective of the PPP model applied in urban development. In terms of levels, urban plans in Taiwan include national land plans, overall regional development plans, north, middle, south, east regional plans, and city plans. As such, the space planning system seems to be complete. However, it is commonly seen as a failure due to a lack of finances and human resources in regional plans. Design and arrangement of the space planning system must aim to strengthen spatial harmony and solve the issue of space-related public interests. Space planning must be able to effectively achieve comprehensive, coordinated, consistent, and rational resource allocation in order to ensure the economic competitiveness, social cohesion, environmental protection, and financial efficiency of space. Despite many years of development, problems continue to occur in the current space planning system in Taiwan. The previous space planning system used in Taiwan did not include regional metropolitan planning. Currently, regional metropolitan plans are integrated in national land projects implemented by the central government to develop official space plans. With regard to the policy’s ability to bring positive effects to Taiwan’s space planning system and ways to use regional metropolitan plans in Taiwan’s space development, a lack of mechanism design that would allow for the achievement of overall (public) interests remains an important issue in space planning and construction in Taiwan. Therefore, this study suggests that the related issues require research that is more extensive and discussion in the future. Particularly, it is important for related experts to conduct further research on issues related to the completed construction of the North Gate Plaza and the connection between the airport MRT system and Taipei Main Station.
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