Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents the most common cause of acquired immune deficiency leading to AIDS. CD4 is found on immune cells like T cells, macrophages and monocyte. HIV infects CD4 cells and in the absence of suitable therapy leads to CD4 cell lymphopenia. The progressive decline in CD4 cells eventually leads to the development of haematological abnormalities, opportunistic infections, wasting, cancer and death.
Aim: The study compared the haematological profiles to the CD4 count among HIV patients attending ART at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Obuasi Government Hospital.
Materials and Method: a cross sectional analytical study involving 385 selected patients with HIV in Ashanti Region was done. CD4 count and Full blood count were performed to determine the immune status of the patients and haematological parameters.
Results: Out of 385 HIV patients enrolled in the study, the mean age, weight, and duration of therapy was 40.62 years old, 58.33 kg, and 6.17 years respectively. A higher proportion of the study participants were females (73.7%), married (42.7%), had HIV-1 (97.7%) and informal education (83.0%). CD4 count was directly associated with haemoglobin levels (r=0.32), WBC count (r= 0.23) especially with neutrophils. However, CD4 count was negatively associated with lymphocyte count (r= -0.14).
Conclusion: This study revealed that there is a strong association between CD4 counts and the severity of anemia and neutropenia in HIV/AIDS patients. Anemia and neutropenia in HIV patients can be considered as good clinical indicators to predict and access the underlying immune status.
KEY WORDS: HIV/AIDS, CD4 count, neutropenia,