The Struggle For Democracy In The Middle East: Kuwait In Focus
Mukhtar Imam Abdullahi Shehu Halidu Sadeeque Abba
Kuwait has the longest modern history of political participation in the Middle East and being one of the first Arab Gulf states to venture into the democratic process. In the past, a council of the most powerful tribes in the city-state chose the Al-Sabah family for an individual leadership role rather than having rule imposed on the Kuwaiti people by force. The government was based on consultation, consensus, and cooperation between business familiesand the ruling family. This research therefore seeks to explore the early stages of democracy in Kuwait; from how it developed to what it has matured into. The research concludes that compared to the rest of the Gulf, the Kuwaiti experience of democracy is a leading one and is one of the best experiences of democracy in the Arab world. Despite all the shortcomings of this experience, it does provide an opportunity for citizens from different political tendencies from nationalists to Islamists and liberals to express their opinions through parliamentary elections and the media, and it has been the only ongoing democracy in the region in years.
Ethnicity Crisis In Pakistan In The Context Of National Identity And Political Legitimacy
Syed Wajahat Afzal
This paper presents the problem of Ethnicity in the context of national identity and political legitimacy in Pakistan. The question of Ethnicity has become a complicated and intimidating problem in developing and underdeveloped states. Ethnicity is a comprehensive term, according to the perspective this term can be defined in different ways in the context of ethnicity can be defined as a shared cultural identity concerning with similar practices, beliefs and linguistic features, which are transferred to one generation to other. Today in Pakistan and indeed elsewhere in the developing world, issues of ethnicity and national identity continue to be of great importance for political legitimacy. The logic of national identity can be established by accepting the legitimacy of the authority in the state. Ethnicity paves the path of regional/ tribal politics in Pakistan. Consequently, performance of the institutions is meager and generating tension that deters the development in the state. Politically and economically state suffers and also creating disunity in the national level.
Forests are one of the most valuable eco-systems in the world, containing over 60% of the world’s biodiversity. This biodiversity has multiple social and economic values, apart from its intrinsic value. Forests provide sustainable environment. Deforestation leads to disappearance of sustainable development. Deforestation takes place due to a number of reasons like, logging, growth of population, urbanization, grazing, logging, acid rain, construction of dams and reservoirs, habitat fragmentation, slash and burn method of farming, wild fire, global warming, hydro-electric projects, quarrying and mining etc. The consequences of deforestation are mainly negative. Many people lose their livelihood. Deforestation leads to loss of cultural diversity, loss of biodiversity and loss of carbon storage capacity. However, deforestation can be restricted and sustainable forestry can be achieved through the alternatives or feasible solutions. This paper focuses on not only the causes and consequences of Deforestation but also alternatives for Sustainable development.
The Dysfunctions Of Bureaucracy In Contemporary Ghana
Dr. Daniel A. Bagah
Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy is one of the central issues in the sociology of organizations. This paper looks at bureaucracy as a distinctive feature of modern society, especially as linked to Weber’s notion of bureaucratic functional efficiency. The fundamental describing characteristics of bureaucracy are reviewed. Without denying Weber’s essential proposition that bureaucracies are more efficient, important dysfunctional consequences of bureaucratic organizations in the light of Ghanaian socio-cultural context are suggested in the paper. These dysfunctions are not intended to suggest that Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy is without value. Rather, they demonstrate that the normative nonempirical character of his approach conceals the dynamic and highly fluid nature of the relationship between bureaucracy and the larger society. This paper therefore establishes this relationship in Ghana.